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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.






  1. to rub
  2. to stroke
  3. to grind
  4. to remove


  • *gʰrey-
  • >? *gʰren(H)dʰ-[1]
  • *gʰrend-?
    • >? *gʰrónd-ro-s
      • Proto-Hellenic: *kʰróndros
        • >? Ancient Greek: χόνδρος (khóndros, small mass; corn of grain; cartilage) (see there for further descendants)
  • *gʰrewd- ~ *gʰr-eu-d- ~ *gʷrod-
    • Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: կորկոտ (korkot) < *gʷo-gʷrod- (perhaps)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
      • Lithuanian: graudìnti (to move, touch)
      • Proto-Slavic: *gruditi (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
      • Proto-Baltic:
        • Lithuanian: grúodas (frost; frozen mud or street dirt)
        • Proto-Finnic: *routa (frost on the ground) (see there for further descendants)
      • Proto-Slavic: *grùda (heap, lump) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Germanic: *grautaz (coarse, crude; big, large) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Germanic: *greutaną (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Germanic: *greutą (grit, rubble) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Germanic: *grautiz
    • Proto-Germanic: *grūtiz, *grūtą
  • *gʰrewh₂-, *gʰreh₂w-[3]
    • *gʰrewh₂-ǵ(ʰ)-
      • *gʰrowǵ(ʰ)os
        • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *grauˀźas (crushed stone, gravel)
          • Latvian: gruži pl (crushed stone)
          • Lithuanian: gráužas, graũžas (gravel, coarse sand)
          • Proto-Slavic: *gruzъ (crushed stone, gravel) (see there for further descendants)
    • *gʰrówh₂-mn̥ or *gʰróh₂u-mn̥
      • Proto-Hellenic: *kʰrṓwmə
        • Ancient Greek: χρῶμα (khrôma, color; skin) (see there for further descendants)
    • *gʰrówh₂-s or *gʰróh₂u-s
      • Proto-Hellenic: *kʰrṓws
        • Ancient Greek: χρώς (khrṓs, color; skin) (see there for further descendants)
        • ? Mycenaean Greek: 𐀀𐀒𐀫𐀸𐀁 (a-ko-ro-we-e /⁠(h)akʰroweʰe⁠/)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
      • Latvian: gŗaût (to destroy, demolish, bring down)
      • Lithuanian: griáuti (to destroy, demolish)
    • Proto-Hellenic:
      • >? Ancient Greek: ἔχραον (ékhraon, attack, assault)
    • Proto-Italic: *grūō
      • Latin: *gruō
        • ? Latin: ingruō (make an onslaught upon, attack, assail, fall on, threaten)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • >? Proto-Italic: *grandis
      • Latin: grandis (large) (see there for further descendants)

Derived terms



  1. ^ Mallory, J. P., Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 169:*ghrendh- ‘grind’
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) “κέγχρος”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 662
  3. ^ Derksen, Rick (2015) “griauti”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 187