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Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/gʷréh₂us

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From *gʷreh₂- +‎ *-us.

AdjectiveEdit

*gʷréh₂us[1][2]

  1. heavy

InflectionEdit

Older proterokinetic pattern:

Athematic, proterokinetic
masculine feminine
nominative *gʷréh₂us *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂
genitive *gʷr̥h₂éws *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂s
masculine singular dual plural
nominative *gʷréh₂us *gʷréh₂uh₁(e) *gʷréh₂ewes
vocative *gʷréh₂u *gʷréh₂uh₁(e) *gʷréh₂ewes
accusative *gʷréh₂um *gʷréh₂uh₁(e) *gʷréh₂ums
genitive *gʷr̥h₂éws *? *gʷr̥h₂éwoHom
ablative *gʷr̥h₂éws *? *gʷr̥h₂úmos
dative *gʷr̥h₂éwey *? *gʷr̥h₂úmos
locative *gʷr̥h₂éw, *gʷr̥h₂éwi *? *gʷr̥h₂úsu
instrumental *gʷr̥h₂úh₁ *? *gʷr̥h₂úbʰi
feminine singular dual plural
nominative *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂ *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂h₁(e) *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂es
vocative *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂ *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂h₁(e) *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂es
accusative *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂m̥ *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂h₁(e) *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂m̥s
genitive *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂s *? *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂oHom
ablative *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂s *? *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂mos
dative *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂ey *? *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂mos
locative *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂, *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂i *? *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂su
instrumental *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂h₁ *? *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂bʰi
neuter singular dual plural
nominative *gʷréh₂u *gʷréh₂wih₁ *gʷréh₂uh₂
vocative *gʷréh₂u *gʷréh₂wih₁ *gʷréh₂uh₂
accusative *gʷréh₂u *gʷréh₂wih₁ *gʷréh₂uh₂
genitive *gʷr̥h₂éws *? *gʷr̥h₂éwoHom
ablative *gʷr̥h₂éws *? *gʷr̥h₂úmos
dative *gʷr̥h₂éwey *? *gʷr̥h₂úmos
locative *gʷr̥h₂éw, *gʷr̥h₂éwi *? *gʷr̥h₂úsu
instrumental *gʷr̥h₂úh₁ *? *gʷr̥h₂úbʰi

Later hysterokinetic pattern:

Athematic, hysterokinetic
masculine feminine
nominative *gʷr̥h₂ús *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂
genitive *gʷr̥h₂éws *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂s
masculine singular dual plural
nominative *gʷr̥h₂ús *gʷr̥h₂úh₁(e) *gʷr̥h₂úes
vocative *gʷr̥h₂ú *gʷr̥h₂úh₁(e) *gʷr̥h₂úes
accusative *gʷr̥h₂úm *gʷr̥h₂úh₁(e) *gʷr̥h₂úms
genitive *gʷr̥h₂éws *? *gʷr̥h₂éwoHom
ablative *gʷr̥h₂éws *? *gʷr̥h₂éwmos
dative *gʷr̥h₂éwey *? *gʷr̥h₂éwmos
locative *gʷr̥h₂éw, *gʷr̥h₂éwi *? *gʷr̥h₂éwsu
instrumental *gʷr̥h₂éwh₁ *? *gʷr̥h₂éwbʰi
feminine singular dual plural
nominative *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂ *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂h₁(e) *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂es
vocative *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂ *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂h₁(e) *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂es
accusative *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂m̥ *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂h₁(e) *gʷr̥h₂éwih₂m̥s
genitive *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂s *? *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂oHom
ablative *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂s *? *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂mos
dative *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂ey *? *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂mos
locative *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂, *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂i *? *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂su
instrumental *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂h₁ *? *gʷr̥h₂uyéh₂bʰi
neuter singular dual plural
nominative *gʷr̥h₂ú *gʷr̥h₂úyh₁ *gʷr̥h₂úh₂
vocative *gʷr̥h₂ú *gʷr̥h₂úyh₁ *gʷr̥h₂úh₂
accusative *gʷr̥h₂ú *gʷr̥h₂úyh₁ *gʷr̥h₂úh₂
genitive *gʷr̥h₂éws *? *gʷr̥h₂éwoHom
ablative *gʷr̥h₂éws *? *gʷr̥h₂éwmos
dative *gʷr̥h₂éwey *? *gʷr̥h₂éwmos
locative *gʷr̥h₂éw, *gʷr̥h₂éwi *? *gʷr̥h₂éwsu
instrumental *gʷr̥h₂éwh₁ *? *gʷr̥h₂éwbʰi

Derived termsEdit

  • *gʷréh₂w-o-s or *gʷr̥h₂w-ó-s[3][4][5][2]
    • Celtic: *bruwos (quantity, multitude)[2][6] (perhaps[4])
    • Italic: *gʷrawos[5] (see there for further descendants)

DescendantsEdit

  • Germanic: *kuruz (see there for further descendants)
  • Hellenic: *gʷarus (see there for further descendants)
  • Indo-Iranian: *gr̥Húš (see there for further descendants)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Pokorny, Julius (1959), “ger-, gerə-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 476-477
  3. ^ de Bernardo Stempel, Patrizia (1999) Nominale Wortbildung des älteren Irischen: Stammbildung und Derivation [Noun Formation in Old Irish: Stem-formation and derivation] (Buchreihe der Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie) (in German), volume 15, Tübingen: Niemeyer, →ISBN, page 220
  4. 4.0 4.1 Zair, Nicholas (2012) The reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals in Celtic, Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 96
  5. 5.0 5.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “272”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page gravis
  6. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages *bruwo-–82
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page brūtus of 75-76