This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European edit

Etymology edit

Reduplicated derivative of *kʷel- (to turn).[1]

Noun edit

The template Template:ine-noun does not use the parameter(s):
Please see Module:checkparams for help with this warning.

*kʷékʷlos m

  1. wheel
  2. circle

Alternative forms edit

  • *kʷekʷlóm
  • *kʷókʷlos
  • *kuklós (= *kʷₔkʷlós reanalyzed as containing *-lós?)

Reconstruction notes edit

This Proto-Indo-European word has been proposed as the source of Sumerian 𒄑𒇀 (ĜIŠGIGIR, chariot), Aramaic and Hebrew גַּלְגַּל (galgal, anything that rolls; wheel) (but compare גָּלַל (gālal, to roll)), and Proto-Kartvelian *grgar.[1] The similarly shaped Chinese 軲轆轱辘 (*guk luk)[2] is only attested in the last few centuries and may be the result of convergent onomatopoeic derivation. Instead, the undetermined (*kla, chariot” > “car) may be a borrowing from a descendant form of this root from the spread of the chariot. See Chariot (China).

Inflection edit

singular collective
nominative *kʷékʷlos *kʷekʷléh₂
genitive *kʷékʷlosyo *kʷekʷlósyo
singular dual plural collective
nominative *kʷékʷlos *kʷékʷloh₁ *kʷékʷloes *kʷekʷléh₂
vocative *kʷékʷle *kʷékʷloh₁ *kʷékʷloes *kʷekʷléh₂
accusative *kʷékʷlom *kʷékʷloh₁ *kʷékʷloms *kʷekʷléh₂
genitive *kʷékʷlosyo *? *kʷékʷloHom *kʷekʷlósyo
ablative *kʷékʷlead *? *kʷékʷlomos *kʷekʷléad
dative *kʷékʷloey *? *kʷékʷlomos *kʷekʷlóey
locative *kʷékʷley, *kʷékʷloy *? *kʷékʷloysu *kʷekʷléy, *kʷekʷlóy
instrumental *kʷékʷloh₁ *? *kʷékʷlōys *kʷekʷlóh₁

Descendants edit

  • Anatolian:
    • (perhaps) Hittite: 𒃻𒆪𒄢𒆷 (NINDAKU.GUL.LA, lard biscuit, doughnut)
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *kaklas (< *kʷokʷlos)
    • Latgalian: koklys (neck)
    • Latvian: kakls (neck)
    • Lithuanian: kãklas (neck)
    • Proto-Finnic: *kakla (neck) (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Germanic: *hwehwlą (< *kʷekʷlóm) (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *kʷókʷlos (< *kʷokʷlos) or *kúklos? (< *kʷukʷlos)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *čakrám (< *kʷekʷlóm) (see there for further descendants)
  • Phrygian: κίκλην (kíklēn) (+ *-ēn)
  • Proto-Tocharian: *kuk(ä)le (< *kʷukʷlo-)[3]

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Mallory, James Patrick (1989) In Search of the Indo-Europeans, Thames and Hudson, →ISBN, p. 163
  2. ^ John Farndon, The World's Greatest Idea, →ISBN, p. 95
  3. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013) “kokale”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 214