See also: , , and
U+8ECA, 車
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8ECA

[U+8EC9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8ECB]
U+2F9E, ⾞
KANGXI RADICAL CART

[U+2F9D]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F9F]
U+F902, 車
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F902

[U+F901]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F903]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 159, +0, 7 strokes, cangjie input 十田十 (JWJ), four-corner 50006, composition or )

  1. Kangxi radical #159, .

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1239, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 38172
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1712, character 34
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3511, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8ECA

Chinese

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trad.
simp. *
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • chhia (Southern Min)

Glyph origin

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Pictogram (象形) – originally a carriage seen from above. In the oracle bone script, there were large wheels on both sides and a sun shade on the top. Later, when Chinese characters were written vertically, the wheels on both sides were simply drawn in strokes and the loading area was marked with a (OC *l'iːŋ). Therefore, it is important to understand that the current character, (OC *kʰlja, *kla) is a vertical depiction of a carriage.

Note that (OC *kaːns) and (OC *ʔr'ew, *r'ew) are not derived from (OC *kʰlja, *kla).

Etymology

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Perhaps a loan from an Indo-European language because horse and chariot were introduced into China around 1200 BC from Inner Asia; compare Tocharian A kukäl, Tocharian B kokale (wagon; cart) (Mair, 1990; Bauer, 1994). An older variant survives in Mandarin 軲轆轱辘 (gūlu, “wheel”) (Bauer, 1994). Alternatively, the word is a derivation by k-prefix from (OC *la, “to lift”) (Baxter and Sagart, 1998); compare the semantic parallel in Tibetan ཐེག་པ (theg pa, vehicle; carriage) (<to support; to carry; to lift).

Pronunciations 1 and 2 are cognate. A similar phonological doublet is (OC *kʰljaʔ, *kʰljas) and (OC *kas) (Schuessler, 2007). Pronunciation 2 is traditionally regarded as the older pronunciation.

The sense of lewd content is derived from 老司機老司机 (lǎosījī).

Pronunciation 1

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Note:
  • ce1 - colloquial (incl. surname);
  • geoi1 - literary.
Note: ki - surname.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (24)
Final () (100)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter tsyhae
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕʰia/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕʰia/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕʰia/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/cʰia/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕʰia/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕʰĭa/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕʰi̯a/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chē
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ce1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
chē
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsyhæ ›
Old
Chinese
/*[t.qʰ](r)A/
English chariot

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 1311
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰlja/

Definitions

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人力三輪

  1. (countable) land vehicle; (specifically) car (Classifier: m;  m c;  m mn;  c;  mn;  mn-t)
      ―  chē  ―  car
      ―  huǒchē  ―  train
    沒有 [MSC, trad.]
    没有 [MSC, simp.]
    Jiē shàng yī liàng chē dōu méiyǒu. [Pinyin]
    There is not even one car on the street.
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    heoi3 ce1 hong4-2 maai5 san1 ce1 [Jyutping]
    to buy a new car at a car dealership
  2. wheeled device, appliance, instrument or apparatus
      ―  huáchē  ―  pulley
      ―  fǎngchē  ―  spinning wheel
  3. machine; rig; engine; motor; locomotive; tractor; truck; lorry (Classifier: m;  m)
      ―  shìchē  ―  to test a new machine
  4. (Cantonese) driving (action of operating a vehicle); driving skills (Classifier: c)
  5. to lathe
  6. to lift water using a 水車水车 (“old-style machine that is human or animal-powered and lifts water”)
  7. (dialectal, including Cantonese, Wu, Northern Min, Southern Min, Liuzhou Mandarin) to transport using a vehicle
    可以地鐵站 [Cantonese, trad.]
    可以地铁站 [Cantonese, simp.]
    nei5 ho2 m4 ho2 ji5 ce1 ngo5 heoi3 dei6 tit3 zaam6 aa3? [Jyutping]
    Can you drive me to the MTR station?
  8. to tailor or sew using a sewing machine
    [Cantonese]  ―  ce1 saam1 [Jyutping]  ―  to sew clothes with a sewing machine
  9. (Cantonese) to hit violently
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    daai6 baa1 daai6 baa1 ce1 lok6 keoi5 faai3 min6 dou6 [Jyutping]
    to hit his face with multiple violent slaps
  10. (dialectal) to turn (one's body, etc.)
  11. (Sichuanese) to rotate; to turn
  12. (Internet slang) pornography; lewd content
  13. Classifier for loads of things carried by a vehicle.
  14. a surname
Usage notes
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  • (chē) is a collective term for all types of vehicles with wheel(s). Additional morphemes are added in front to specify the type of the vehicle. For example:
      ―  chē  ―  car
      ―  huǒchē  ―  train
    自行自行  ―  zìxíngchē  ―  bicycle
    嬰兒婴儿  ―  yīng'érchē  ―  pram
Synonyms
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  • (vehicle):
Compounds
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Pronunciation 2

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Note: gu1 - Chaoyang, Puning, Huilai.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter kjo
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɨʌ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kiɔ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiɔ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kɨə̆/
Li
Rong
/kiɔ/
Wang
Li
/kĭo/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯wo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
geoi1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ kjo ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.q(r)a/
English chariot

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 1315
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kla/

Definitions

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  1. (xiangqi) chariot; rook (Classifier: c)
  2. (chess) rook
Coordinate terms
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Compounds
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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (しゃ) (sha)
  • Korean: 차(車) (cha), 거(車) (geo)
  • Vietnamese: xa ()

Others:

  • Vietnamese: xe (, wheeled vehicle)
  • Zhuang: ci (vehicle)

See also

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Chess pieces in Mandarin · 國際象棋棋子国际象棋棋子 (guójì xiàngqí qízǐ) (layout · text)
           
(wáng),
國王国王 (guówáng)
(hòu),
皇后 (huánghòu)
(),
城堡 (chéngbǎo)
(xiàng),
主教 (zhǔjiào)
(),
騎士骑士 (qíshì)
(bīng)

References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. vehicle

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
しゃ
Grade: 1
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC tsyhae).

Pronunciation

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Counter

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(しゃ) (-sha

  1. used to count vehicles

Affix

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(しゃ) (sha

  1. vehicle
    (かん)(こく)(しゃ)
    Kankoku-sha
    South Korean vehicle
  2. train car
    Synonym: 車両
    (じょ)(せい)(せん)(よう)(しゃ)
    josei-sen'yō-sha
    car for women only

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
くるま
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū completed some time after 759 CE, with the ideographic spelling .[1]

Assuming an initial meaning of wheel, may be a compound of くる (kuru, related to spinning or rotating, as in 繰る (kuru, to spin (as in thread)), (kuru, hinge), くるくる (kurukuru, spinningly, round and round), 転めく (kurumeku, to spin round and round, to rotate; to be dizzy)) +‎ (ma, a suffix added to various parts of speech to form an indeclinable word indicating state).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(くるま) (kuruma (counter )

  1. a car, an automobile, a carriage, a cart
  2. a wheel, a caster
  3. something wheel-shaped
  4. a style of (mon, family crest)
  5. short for various terms:
    1. short for 車海老 (kuruma ebi): a prawn
    2. short for 車懸 (kuruma-gakari): “wheel formation”, a battle tactic where units attack in staged waves in order to prevent the opponent from resting
    3. short for 肩車 (kata-guruma): riding on one's shoulders, piggyback
    4. short for 手車 (te-guruma): a handcart, a wheelbarrow
    5. short for 車座 (kuruma za): sitting in a circle
  6. (obsolete) during the Edo period, in the red-light district in Ōsaka, a prostitute whose services cost four (monme) and three (bun) (possibly in reference to the cost of a carriage ride)
Derived terms
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Descendants
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References

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  1. ^
    c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 4, poem 694:
    , text here
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  • Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology 1

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From Middle Chinese (MC tsyhae).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 (Yale: chyà)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 又音 (Yale: chyà)
Early Modern Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Juhae Cheonjamun, 1804 수뤼 (surwi) (cha)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 수레 (sure cha))

  1. Hanja form? of (car; automobile; vehicle).
  2. Hanja form? of (cart; wheeled machinery).
Usage notes
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This reading is used as a standalone word to mean "car."

Compounds

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Etymology 2

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From Middle Chinese (MC kjo).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 (Yale: )
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[3] 술위〮 (Yale: swùlGwúy) (Yale: )
Early Modern Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Juhae Cheonjamun, 1804 수뤼 (surwi) (geo)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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(eumhun 수레 (sure geo))

  1. (only in compounds) Hanja form? of (cart; wheeled machinery).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [4]

Kunigami

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Kanji

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(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Etymology

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From Proto-Ryukyuan *kuruma, from Proto-Japonic *kuruma.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(く゚るまー) (kurumā

  1. car
  2. wheel

Miyako

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Kanji

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(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Etymology

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From Proto-Ryukyuan *kuruma, from Proto-Japonic *kuruma.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(くるま) (kuruma

  1. car
  2. wheel

Okinawan

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Kanji

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(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

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Etymology

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From Proto-Ryukyuan *kuruma, from Proto-Japonic *kuruma.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(くるま) (kuruma

  1. car
  2. wheel

Tày

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Verb

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(xa)

  1. Nôm form of xa (to search, to look for).
    役富貴古媒車拾
    Viểc phú quý cổ moi xa thắp
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)

References

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  • Lục Văn Pảo, Hoàng Tuấn Nam (2003) Hoàng Triều Ân, editor, Từ điển chữ Nôm Tày [A Dictionary of (chữ) Nôm Tày]‎[5] (in Vietnamese), Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản Khoa học Xã hội

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: xa, xe, xế

  1. a car
  2. (xiangqi) any piece labeled with 車; the chariot/rook.

Compounds

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Yaeyama

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Kanji

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(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Etymology

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From Proto-Ryukyuan *kuruma, from Proto-Japonic *kuruma.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(くるま) (kuruma

  1. car
  2. wheel

Yonaguni

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Kanji

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(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Etymology

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From Proto-Ryukyuan *kuruma, from Proto-Japonic *kuruma.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(くるま) (kuruma

  1. car
  2. wheel