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See also: and
U+8ECA, 車
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8ECA

[U+8EC9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8ECB]
U+F902, 車
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F902

[U+F901]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F903]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 159 +0, 7 strokes, cangjie input 十田十 (JWJ), four-corner 50006, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #159, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1239, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 38172
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1712, character 34
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3511, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8ECA

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰlja, *kla
*kʰlja
*qʰljaːs
*kʰaːs

Ideogram (指事): it is derived from a pictogram of a carriage seen from above, with the long vertical stroke representing the axle, the central square representing the body of the carriage, and the top and bottom horizontal lines representing the wheels.

Note that (OC *kaːns) (as in left part of (OC *ʔr'ew, *r'ew)) is not derived from .

Pronunciation 1Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (24)
Final () (100)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕʰia/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕʰia/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕʰia/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/cʰia/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕʰia/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕʰĭa/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕʰi̯a/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chē
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
chē
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsyhæ ›
Old
Chinese
/*[t.qʰ](r)A/
English chariot

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 1311
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰlja/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. chariot; cart
  2. vehicle; car (Classifier: ; ; ;  c;  mn)
  3. machine; instrument (Classifier: )
  4. carry in cart
  5. to machine, to shape with a lathe
  6. to tailor or sew using a sewing machine
    / [Cantonese]  ―  ce1 saam1 [Jyutping]  ―  to sew clothes with a sewing machine
  7. (Cantonese) to drive somebody; to give somebody a ride
    可以地鐵 [Cantonese, trad.]
    可以地铁 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Nei5 ho2 m4 ho2 ji5 ce1 ngo5 heoi3 dei6 tit3 zaam6 aa3? [Jyutping]
    Can you drive me to the MTR station?
  8. (Sichuan) to rotate

Usage notesEdit

  • is a collective term for all types of vehicles with wheel(s). Additional morphemes are added in front to specify the type of the vehicle. For example:
    /   ―  chē  ―  car
    /   ―  huǒchē  ―  train
    自行 / 自行  ―  zìxíngchē  ―  bicycle
    嬰兒 / 婴儿  ―  yīng'érchē  ―  pram

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit


Note: gu1 - Chaoyang, Puning, Huilai.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɨʌ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kiɔ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiɔ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kɨə̆/
Li
Rong
/kiɔ/
Wang
Li
/kĭo/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯wo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ kjo ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.q(r)a/
English chariot

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 1315
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kla/

DefinitionsEdit

 

  1. (Chinese chess) chariot; rook
Coordinate termsEdit

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. vehicle

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
しゃ
Grade: 1
on’yomi

PronunciationEdit

CounterEdit

(hiragana しゃ, rōmaji -sha)

  1. used to count vehicles

NounEdit

(hiragana しゃ, rōmaji sha)

  1. vehicle
Usage notesEdit

The noun sense is never used in isolation. Only found in compounds.

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
くるま
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū completed some time after 759 CE, with the ideographic spelling .[1]

Assuming an initial meaning of wheel, may be a compound of くる (kuru, related to spinning or rotating, as in 繰る (kuru, to spin (as in thread)), (kuru, hinge), くるくる (kurukuru, spinningly, round and round), 転めく (kurumeku, to spin round and round, to rotate; to be dizzy)) +‎ (ma, a suffix added to various parts of speech to form an indeclinable word indicating state).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(counter , hiragana くるま, rōmaji kuruma)

  1. a car, an automobile, a carriage, a cart
  2. a wheel, a caster
  3. something wheel-shaped
  4. a style of (mon, family crest)
  5. short for various terms:
    1. short for 車海老 (kuruma ebi): a prawn
    2. short for 車懸 (kuruma-gakari): “wheel formation”, a battle tactic where units attack in staged waves in order to prevent the opponent from resting
    3. short for 肩車 (kata-guruma): riding on one's shoulders, piggyback
    4. short for 手車 (te-guruma): a handcart, a wheelbarrow
    5. short for 車座 (kuruma za): sitting in a circle
  6. (obsolete) during the Edo period, in the red-light district in Ōsaka, a prostitute whose services cost four (monme) and three (bun) (possibly in reference to the cost of a carriage ride)
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 4, poem 694), text here
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  • 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(cha, geo)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): , (revised: cha, geo, McCune-Reischauer: ch'a, kŏ, Yale: cha, ke)
    • Name (hangeul): 수레
  1. (수레 차, sure-): cart; wheeled machinery

CompoundsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(xa, xe, xế)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

CompoundsEdit