See also: , , and
U+8ECA, 車
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8ECA

[U+8EC9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8ECB]
U+2F9E, ⾞
KANGXI RADICAL CART

[U+2F9D]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F9F]
U+F902, 車
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F902

[U+F901]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F903]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 159, +0, 7 strokes, cangjie input 十田十 (JWJ), four-corner 50006, composition or ⿻)

  1. Kangxi radical #159, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1239, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 38172
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1712, character 34
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3511, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8ECA

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • chhia (Min Nan)

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Shizhoupian script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
                   

Ideogram (指事): It is derived from a pictogram of a carriage seen from above. In the oracle bone script, there were large wheels on both sides and a sun shade on the top. Later, when Chinese characters were written vertically, the wheels on both sides were simply drawn in strokes and the loading area was marked with a (OC *l'iːŋ). Therefore, it is important to understand that the current character, (OC *kʰlja, *kla) is a vertical depiction of a carriage.

Note that (OC *kaːns) (as in left part of (OC *ʔr'ew, *r'ew)) is not derived from (OC *kʰlja, *kla).

EtymologyEdit

Perhaps a loan from an Indo-European language because horse and chariot were introduced into China around 1200 BC from the West; compare Tocharian A kukäl, Tocharian B kokale (wagon; cart) (Mair, 1990; Bauer, 1994). An older variant survives in Mandarin 軲轆轱辘 (gūlu, “wheel”) (Bauer, 1994). Alternatively, the word is a derivation by k-prefix from (OC *la, “to lift”) (Baxter and Sagart, 1998); compare the semantic parallel in Tibetan ཐེག་པ (theg pa, vehicle; carriage) (<to support; to carry; to lift).

Pronunciations 1 and 2 are cognate. A similar phonological doublet is (OC *kʰljaʔ, *kʰljas) and (OC *kas) (Schuessler, 2007). Pronunciation 2 is traditionally regarded as the older pronunciation.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • ce1 - colloquial (incl. surname);
  • geoi1 - literary.
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note: ki - surname.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (24)
    Final () (100)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ɕʰia/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡ɕʰia/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ɕʰia/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /cʰia/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ɕʰia/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ɕʰĭa/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡ɕʰi̯a/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    chē
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ce1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    chē
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsyhæ ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[t.qʰ](r)A/
    English chariot

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 1311
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰlja/

    DefinitionsEdit

     
    人力三輪

    1. chariot; cart
    2. (countable) land wheeled vehicle; (specifically) car (Classifier: ; ; ;  c;  mn)
      /   ―  chē  ―  car
      /   ―  huǒchē  ―  train
    3. (countable) machine; instrument (Classifier: )
    4. carry in cart
    5. to machine, to shape with a lathe
    6. to tailor or sew using a sewing machine
      / [Cantonese]  ―  ce1 saam1 [Jyutping]  ―  to sew clothes with a sewing machine
    7. (Cantonese, transitive) to drive somebody; to give somebody a ride
      可以地鐵站 [Cantonese, trad.]
      可以地铁站 [Cantonese, simp.]
      nei5 ho2 m4 ho2 ji5 ce1 ngo5 heoi3 dei6 tit3 zaam6 aa3? [Jyutping]
      Can you drive me to the MTR station?
    8. (Sichuanese) to rotate
    9. (Can we verify(+) this sense?) (Internet slang) pornography
    10. A surname​.
    Usage notesEdit
    • (chē) is a collective term for all types of vehicles with wheel(s). Additional morphemes are added in front to specify the type of the vehicle. For example:
      /   ―  chē  ―  car
      /   ―  huǒchē  ―  train
      自行 / 自行  ―  zìxíngchē  ―  bicycle
      嬰兒 / 婴儿  ―  yīng'érchē  ―  pram
    SynonymsEdit
    • (vehicle):
    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Note: gu1 - Chaoyang, Puning, Huilai.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kɨʌ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kiɔ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kiɔ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kɨə̆/
    Li
    Rong
    /kiɔ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kĭo/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ki̯wo/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    geoi1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kjo ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.q(r)a/
    English chariot

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 1315
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kla/

    DefinitionsEdit

     

    1. (xiangqi) chariot; rook
    2. (chess) rook
    Coordinate termsEdit
    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (しゃ) (sha)
    • Korean: (, cha); (, geo)
    • Vietnamese: xa ()

    Others:

    • Vietnamese: xe (, wheeled vehicle)
    • Zhuang: ci (vehicle)

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. vehicle

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    しゃ
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕʰia).

    PronunciationEdit

    CounterEdit

    (しゃ) (-sha

    1. used to count vehicles

    AffixEdit

    (しゃ) (sha

    1. vehicle
      (かん)(こく)(しゃ)
      Kankoku-sha
      South Korean vehicle
    2. train car
      Synonym: 車両
      (じょ)(せい)(せん)(よう)(しゃ)
      josei-sen'yō-sha
      car for women only

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    くるま
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū completed some time after 759 CE, with the ideographic spelling .[1]

    Assuming an initial meaning of wheel, may be a compound of くる (kuru, related to spinning or rotating, as in 繰る (kuru, to spin (as in thread)), (kuru, hinge), くるくる (kurukuru, spinningly, round and round), 転めく (kurumeku, to spin round and round, to rotate; to be dizzy)) +‎ (ma, a suffix added to various parts of speech to form an indeclinable word indicating state).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (くるま) (kuruma (counter )

    1. a car, an automobile, a carriage, a cart
    2. a wheel, a caster
    3. something wheel-shaped
    4. a style of (mon, family crest)
    5. short for various terms:
      1. short for 車海老 (kuruma ebi): a prawn
      2. short for 車懸 (kuruma-gakari): “wheel formation”, a battle tactic where units attack in staged waves in order to prevent the opponent from resting
      3. short for 肩車 (kata-guruma): riding on one's shoulders, piggyback
      4. short for 手車 (te-guruma): a handcart, a wheelbarrow
      5. short for 車座 (kuruma za): sitting in a circle
    6. (obsolete) during the Edo period, in the red-light district in Ōsaka, a prostitute whose services cost four (monme) and three (bun) (possibly in reference to the cost of a carriage ride)
    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 4, poem 694), text here
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    • 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕʰia).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 (Yale: chyà)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 又音 (Yale: chyà)
    Early Modern Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Juhae Cheonjamun, 1804 수뤼 (surwi) (chya)

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 수레 (sure cha))

    1. Hanja form? of (car; automobile; vehicle).
    2. Hanja form? of (cart; wheeled machinery).

    Usage notesEdit

    This reading is used as a standalone word to mean "car."

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC kɨʌ).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 (Yale: )
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[3] 술위〮 (Yale: swùlGwúy) (Yale: )
    Early Modern Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Juhae Cheonjamun, 1804 수뤼 (surwi) (geo)

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 수레 (sure geo))

    1. (only in compounds) Hanja form? of (cart; wheeled machinery).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [4]

    KunigamiEdit

    KanjiEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana く゚るまー, romaji kurumā)

    1. car
    2. wheel

    MiyakoEdit

    KanjiEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana くるま, romaji kuruma)

    1. car
    2. wheel

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana くるま, romaji kuruma)

    1. car
    2. wheel

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: xa, xe, xế

    • a car
    • (xiangqi) any piece labeled with 車; the chariot/rook.

    CompoundsEdit


    YaeyamaEdit

    KanjiEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana くるま, romaji kuruma)

    1. car
    2. wheel

    YonaguniEdit

    KanjiEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana くるま, romaji kuruma)

    1. car
    2. wheel