Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/kʷel-

This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European edit

Root edit

*kʷel-

  1. to turn (end-over-end)
  2. to revolve around, and therefore to sojourn, to dwell

Reconstruction notes edit

The root is sometimes reconstructed with -h₁- in order to explain some forms in Greek, including:

This reconstruction, however, contradicts some forms in other languages, e.g.:

  • Proto-Italic *kʷl̥-tó-s (past participle) > Latin cultus (not **clātus < **kʷl̥h₁-tós)

Alternative reconstructions edit

Derived terms edit

  • *kʷól-os ~ *kʷól-es-os
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *kalas
      • Proto-Slavic: *kolo (see there for further descendants)
  • *kʷol-so-
    • Proto-Germanic: *halsaz (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Italic: *kʷolsom
      • Latin: collum (see there for further descendants)
  • *kʷl̥-tó-s
  • *kʷel-éh₂
  • *kʷel-h₃onh₂-os
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Hellenic:
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Indo-Aryan:
    • Proto-Tocharian: *käl-[4]
    • Proto-Tocharian:
      • Tocharian B: klutk-
      • (possibly) Proto-Uralic: *kulke- (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *kela-
      • Proto-Slavic: *čeľadь (household, servants) (see there for further descendants)
      • (possibly) Proto-Slavic: *čelověkъ (human) (see there for further descendants)

References edit

  1. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “kelh₁-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, page 386
  2. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. (2000) A concise historical grammar of the Albanian language: reconstruction of Proto-Albanian[1], Leiden, Boston, Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 214: “*kle-nti”
  3. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013), “kele”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 211
  4. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013), “käl-”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, pages 179-181