This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Due to the Greek form ἀνεψιός (anepsiós, first cousin) some reconstruct an initial laryngeal, rendering the reconstruction *h₂népōt. An alternative theory is that the Greek form reflects a compounded form *sm̥-neptiyos (co-grandson), expressing the reciprocity of the relation.

The reconstruction without a laryngeal has been suggested to be derived from *ne (not) and *pótis (master, lord, husband).


*(h₂)népōts m or f

  1. grandson
  2. descendant
  3. (possibly) nephew

Usage notesEdit

The meaning "nephew" is confined to the west and center of the IE world.


Athematic, amphikinetic
nominative *(h₂)népōts
genitive *(h₂)n̥ptés
singular dual plural
nominative *(h₂)népōts *(h₂)népoth₁(e) *(h₂)népotes
vocative *(h₂)népot *(h₂)népoth₁(e) *(h₂)népotes
accusative *(h₂)népotm̥ *(h₂)népoth₁(e) *(h₂)népotm̥s
genitive *(h₂)n̥ptés *? *(h₂)n̥ptóHom
ablative *(h₂)n̥ptés *? *(h₂)n̥ptmós
dative *(h₂)n̥ptéy *? *(h₂)n̥ptmós
locative *(h₂)népot, *(h₂)népoti *? *(h₂)n̥ptsú
instrumental *(h₂)n̥ptéh₁ *? *(h₂)n̥ptmís

Coordinate termsEdit

Derived termsEdit


  • Albanian: nip (possibly a Latin loanword), mbesë
  • Balto-Slavic:
    • Old Lithuanian: nepuotis
    • Proto-Slavic: *netьjь (< *neptiyos) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Finnic: *nepada (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Celtic: *neɸūss
    • Old Irish: nia (sister's son)
  • Proto-Germanic: *nefô (see there for further descendants)
  • Hellenic:
    • Ancient Greek: ἀνεψιός (anepsiós) (< *sm̥-neptiyos (co-grandson) or *h₂népōt)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *nápāts (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Italic: *nepōts (see there for further descendants)