This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European edit

Reconstruction edit

Due to the Greek form ἀνεψιός (anepsiós, first cousin) some reconstruct an initial laryngeal, rendering the reconstruction *h₂népōt. An alternative theory is that the Greek form reflects a compounded form *sm̥-neptiyos (co-grandson), expressing the reciprocity of the relation.

The reconstruction without a laryngeal has been suggested to be derived from *ne (not) and *pótis (master, lord, husband).

Noun edit

*(h₂)népōts m or f

  1. grandson
  2. descendant
  3. (possibly) nephew

Usage notes edit

The meaning "nephew" is confined to the west and center of the IE world.

Inflection edit

Athematic, amphikinetic
nominative *(h₂)népōts
genitive *(h₂)n̥ptés
singular dual plural
nominative *(h₂)népōts *(h₂)népoth₁(e) *(h₂)népotes
vocative *(h₂)népot *(h₂)népoth₁(e) *(h₂)népotes
accusative *(h₂)népotm̥ *(h₂)népoth₁(e) *(h₂)népotm̥s
genitive *(h₂)n̥ptés *? *(h₂)n̥ptóHom
ablative *(h₂)n̥ptés *? *(h₂)n̥ptmós
dative *(h₂)n̥ptéy *? *(h₂)n̥ptmós
locative *(h₂)népot, *(h₂)népoti *? *(h₂)n̥ptsú
instrumental *(h₂)n̥ptéh₁ *? *(h₂)n̥ptmís

Coordinate terms edit

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Albanian: nip (possibly a Latin loanword), mbesë
  • Balto-Slavic:
    • Old Lithuanian: nepuotis
    • Proto-Slavic: *netьjь (< *neptiyos) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Finnic: *nëpada (see there for further descendants)
    • Kildin Sami: няпай (njapaj)[1]
  • Proto-Celtic: *neɸūss (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Germanic: *nefô (see there for further descendants)
  • Hellenic:
    • Ancient Greek: ἀνεψιός (anepsiós) (< *sm̥-neptiyos (co-grandson) or *h₂népōt)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *nápāts (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Italic: *nepōts (see there for further descendants)

References edit

  1. ^ Kildin Sami vocabulary. In: Haspelmath, M. & Tadmor, U. (eds.) World Loanword Database. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

Further reading edit