This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European edit

Etymology edit

Disputed;[1][2] possibly from *weh₁y- (to twist; to wrap) +‎ *-ō,[3][4][5][6] compare Ancient Greek ὑιήν (huiḗn, grapevine), from *wih₁-ḗn,[5] and Latin vītis (vine), from *wéh₁itis, or perhaps borrowed from either Proto-West Semitic *wayn- or Proto-Kartvelian *ɣwino-, if those terms are not instead borrowings of the Proto-Indo-European.[2][7][8][9] Possibly all ultimately borrowed from an unattested Mediterranean substrate language.[10][11]

Noun edit

*wéyh₁ō m[12][13][9]

  1. wine
  2. vine

Inflection edit

Athematic, amphikinetic
nominative *wéyh₁ō
genitive *wih₁nés
singular dual plural
nominative *wéyh₁ō *wéyh₁onh₁(e) *wéyh₁ones
vocative *wéyh₁on *wéyh₁onh₁(e) *wéyh₁ones
accusative *wéyh₁onm̥ *wéyh₁onh₁(e) *wéyh₁onm̥s
genitive *wih₁nés *? *wih₁nóHom
ablative *wih₁nés *? *wih₁n̥mós
dative *wih₁néy *? *wih₁n̥mós
locative *wih₁én, *wih₁éni *? *wih₁n̥sú
instrumental *wih₁néh₁ *? *wih₁n̥mís

Derived terms edit

  • *wéyh₁n-o-m[8]
    • Proto-Armenian: *ɣʷeinyo- (or from *wóyh₁n-o-s[14])[15]
    • Proto-Italic: *wīnom (see there for further descendants)
      • Latin: vīnum (see there for further descendants)
        • Proto-Celtic: *wīnom (see there for further descendants)
        • Proto-Germanic: *wīną (see there for further descendants)
        • Proto-Slavic: *vīnò (see there for further descendants)
  • *wóyh₁n-eh₂
  • *wóyh₁n-o-s[5][8][3]
  • *wih₁-on-[13][4][8]
    • Proto-Anatolian:
      • Hittite: 𒃾𒅖 (GEŠTIN-iš /⁠wiyanis⁠/, wine)
      • Luwian:
        Cuneiform script: [script needed] (winiya-)
  • *wih₁n-yó-s[8]
    • Proto-Anatolian:
      • Hittite: 𒌑𒄿𒉌𒅀𒀭𒋫𒀭 (ú-i-ni-ya-an-ta-an /⁠*winiyantan⁠/, wine (deified), accusative)
      • Luwian:
        Anatolian Hieroglyphs script: [Term?] (/⁠wiyan(i)-⁠/), [Term?] (/⁠win(i)-⁠/, of wine)
  • ? Proto-Kartvelian: *ɣwino- (possibly via Armenian) (see there for further descendants)
  • ? Proto-West Semitic: *wayn- (see there for further descendants)
  • ? Aghwan: 𐕔𐔼 (fi)

References edit

  1. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2011) Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction, 2nd edition, revised and corrected by Michiel de Vaan, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, page 36
  2. 2.0 2.1 Fortson, Benjamin W. (2010) Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, second edition, Oxford: Blackwell, page 38
  3. 3.0 3.1 Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) “οἶνος”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 1058-1059
  4. 4.0 4.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “vīnum”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 680
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Mallory, J. P. with Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (Oxford Linguistics), New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, pages 166-167
  6. ^ Schrader, Otto (1912) Die Anschauungen V. Hehns von der Herkunft unserer Kulturpflanzen und Haustiere im Lichte neuerer Forschung[1] (in German), Berlin: Gebrüder Borntraeger, page 29
  7. ^ Nichols, J. (1997) “The epicentre of the Indo-European linguistic spread”, in Blench, R., M. Spriggs, editors, Archaeology and Language I: Theoretical and Methodological Orientations[2], London: Routledge, page 126
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Fenwick, Rhona S. H. (2017) “An Indo-European origin of Kartvelian names for two maloid fruits”, in Asatrian, Garnik S., editors, Iran and the Caucasus[3], volume 21, number 3, Brill, →DOI, page 2
  9. 9.0 9.1 Климов, Г. А. (1994) Древнейшие индоевропеизмы картвельских языков [The Oldest Indo-Europeanisms in Kartvelian Languages] (in Russian), Moscow: Nasledie, →ISBN, pages 79-82
  10. ^ Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 53
  11. ^ Lindner, Thomas (2017–2018) “Chapter VIII: Italic”, in Klein, Jared S., Joseph, Brian D., Fritz, Matthias, editors, Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics: An International Handbook (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft [Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science]; 41.2), Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, →ISBN, § The lexicon of Italic, page 832
  12. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (1987) “On Indo-European ‘wine’”, in Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft, pages 21-26
  13. 13.0 13.1 Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) “u̯ii̯an-”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1012
  14. ^ Olsen, Birgit Anette (2017) “Part 9: Armenian”, in Kapović, Mate, editor, The Indo-European Languages (Routledge Language Family Series), 2nd edition, London, New York: Routledge, →ISBN, page 422
  15. ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (2010) “gini”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden and Boston: Brill, pages 214–215
  16. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. (2000) A concise historical grammar of the Albanian language: reconstruction of Proto-Albanian[4], Leiden, Boston, Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 50
  17. ^ Demiraj, B. (1997) “vër/ë,-a”, in Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz [Albanian Etymologies: []] (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 7)‎[5] (in German), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, page 414

Further reading edit

  • Gorton, Luke (2017) “Revisiting Indo-European ‘Wine’”, in Journal of Indo-European Studies[6], volume 45, numbers 1–2, pages 1–26
  • Lipp, Reiner (2019) “The Word for Wine in Anatolian, Greek, Armenian, Italic, Etruscan, Semitic and Its Indo-European Origin”, in Ronald I. Kim, Jana Mynářová, and Peter Pavúk, editors, Hrozný and Hittite: The First Hundred Years, Leiden and Boston: Brill, →DOI, pages 195–229