Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-Iranian/-kas

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This Proto-Indo-Iranian entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-IranianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Indo-European *-kos.

SuffixEdit

*-kas

  1. Creates deadjectival and desubstantival adjectives denoting the characteristic of, typical of, pertaining to.

Usage notesEdit

Primary *-kas suffixes are attached directly to a verbal or nominal root. Secondary *-kas suffixes are attached to 1sg. stems in Proto-Indo-Aryan and 1pl. and 2pl. stems in Proto-Iranian.

In Old Persian, the suffix frequently occurs in proper nouns, ethnonyms and toponyms. In Avestan it is often used in imprecatory, pejorative, or affective and familiar contexts.

It is highly productive in Middle Indo-Aryan as a general noun suffix.

InflectionEdit

Thematic
masculine feminine
nominative *-kas *-kaH
genitive *-kasya *-kaHs
masculine singular dual plural
nominative *-kas *-kaH *-kās
vocative *-ka *-kaH *-kās
accusative *-kam *-kaH *-kans
genitive *-kasya *? *-kām
ablative *-kāt *? *-kamas
dative *-kāy *? *-kamas
locative *-kay *? *-kayšu
instrumental *-kaH *? *-kāš
feminine singular dual plural
nominative *-kaH *-kaH(a) *-kaHas
vocative *-kaH *-kaH(a) *-kaHas
accusative *-kaHa *-kaH(a) *-kaHas
genitive *-kaHs *? *-kaHaHam
ablative *-kaHs *? *-kaHmas
dative *-kaHay *? *-kaHmas
locative *-kaH, *-kaHi *? *-kaHsu
instrumental *-kaHH *? *-kaHbʰi
neuter singular dual plural
nominative *-kam *-kay(H) *-kaH
vocative *-kam *-kay(H) *-kaH
accusative *-kam *-kay(H) *-kaH
genitive *-kasya *? *-kām
ablative *-kāt *? *-kamas
dative *-kāy *? *-kamas
locative *-kay *? *-kayšu
instrumental *-kaH *? *-kāš

Derived termsEdit

  • *-akas (< *-a- (thematic vowel) + -kas)
    • Indo-Aryan: *-akas
      • Sanskrit: -अक (-aka, deverbal agent noun suffix)
    • Iranian: *-akah
      • Old Persian: -𐎠𐎣 (-a-k /-aka/)
        • Middle Persian: -ag (adjectival suffix)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Jamison, Stephanie W. (2009) , “Sociolinguistic Remarks on the Indo-Iranian *-ka-Suffix: A Marker of Colloquial Register”, in Indo-Iranian Journal, volume 52, issue 2, Leiden: Leiden University, pages 311-329
  2. Ciancaglini, Claudia (2012) , “Outcomes of the Indo-Iranian suffix *-ka- in Old Persian and Avestan”, in DARIOSH Studies II. Persepolis and his Settlements. Territorial System and Ideology in the Achaemenid State[1], Napoli: Università degli Studi di Napoli "L'Orientale", page 91