Northern Kurdish edit

Suffix edit

ـی⁩ ()

  1. Arabic spelling of

Ottoman Turkish edit

Suffix edit

ـی (-ı, -i, -u, -ü)

  1. 3rd-person possessive suffix
    قیامت كونی
    kıyamet günü
    judgement day

Persian edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle Persian -yk' / ⁧𐭩𐭪𐭩(yky /⁠-īg⁠/), from Proto-Iranian *-akah, from Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂kos, from a-stem suffix *-eh₂ + adjectival suffix *-kos. There is no evidence to support a relation with the Arabicـِيّ(-iyy). See ⁧ـه(-e) for another instance where the 'g' phoneme is removed from the end of the Middle Persian suffix in its New Persian form.

Pronunciation edit

 

Readings
Classical reading? ī
Dari reading? ī
Iranian reading? i
Tajik reading? i

Suffix edit

ـی (-i)

  1. Forms nouns or adjectives from nouns
    1. of or pertaining to
      ‎⁧خورشید(xoršid, sun) + ‎⁧ـی⁩ → ‎⁧خورشیدی(xoršidi, solar)
    2. one from or belonging to
      ‎⁧تهران(tehrân, Tehran) + ‎⁧ـی⁩ → ‎⁧تهرانی(tehrâni, Tehrani)
    3. Forms the word for a profession, and the place it is practiced, from the word for the person who practice it
      ‎⁧خیاط(xayyât, tailor) + ‎⁧ـی⁩ → ‎⁧خیاطی(xayyâti, tailoring; tailor shop)
    4. able to, capabale of being, deserved to be, determined to, and/or destined to
      ‎⁧خوردن(xordan, to eat) + ‎⁧ـی⁩ → ‎⁧خوردنی(xordani, edible)
      ‎⁧رفتن(raftan, to go) + ‎⁧ـی⁩ → ‎⁧رفتنی(raftani, destined to leave)
  2. Forms surnames.
Usage notes edit

ـی⁩ is the form that follows words ending in consonants. Adjectives ending in the short vowel ⁧ـه(-e) will use the form ⁧ـگی(-egi) for their derived nouns, while nouns ending in ⁧ـه(-e) will usually add the non-joining ⁧ای(-i) to form their derived adjectives. Both nouns and adjectives ending in the long vowels ⁧ـا() and ⁧ـو(-u) will use the form ⁧یی(-yi)

As a derivational suffix, ⁧ـی⁩ and the above-mentioned alternative forms take the stress in a word, as in ⁧خورشیدی(xoršidi, solar). As the marked indefinite or relative definite suffix, the stress remains on the root of the word, as in ⁧خورشیدی(xoršidi, a sun / the sun which)

Most Persian surnames end in this suffix.

Derived terms edit
Category Persian terms suffixed with ـی not found
References edit
  • MacKenzie, D. N. (1986). A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary. OUP. p. 45.

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle Persian𐭩𐭧(yḥ /⁠-īh⁠/).

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

ـی (-i)

  1. Forms abstract nouns from adjectives.
    ‎⁧بزرگ(bozorg, big) + ‎⁧ـی⁩ → ‎⁧بزرگی(bozorgi, bigness)
    ‎⁧شیرین(širin, sweet) + ‎⁧ـی⁩ → ‎⁧شیرینی(širini, sweetness)
    ‎⁧جوان(javân, young) + ‎⁧ـی⁩ → ‎⁧جوانی(javâni, youth)

Etymology 3 edit

From Middle Persian𐭸(1 /⁠ē(w)⁠/), from Old Persian 𐎠𐎡𐎺 (a-i-v /⁠aiva⁠/), Proto-Iranian *Háywah, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Háywas, from Proto-Indo-European *óywos. Compare Ancient Greek οἶος (oîos), and Avestan𐬀𐬉𐬎𐬎𐬀(aēuua).

Pronunciation edit

 

Readings
Classical reading? ē
Dari reading? ē
Iranian reading? i
Tajik reading? e

Suffix edit

Dari ـی
Iranian Persian
Tajik

ـی (-i)

  1. a, one; Marks a noun phrase as indefinite or non-specific, especially in the literary language.
    Synonym: (colloquial)یه(ye)
  2. Marks a noun phrase attributed by a subordinate clause as restrictive.
    ساختمانی که علی در آن زندگی می‌کند بزرگ است.
    sâxtemân-i ke 'ali dar ân zendegi mi-konad bozorg-ast.
    The building where Ali lives is big.
    Contrast with:
    آن ساختمان که علی در آن زندگی می‌کند بزرگ است.
    ân sâxtemân ke 'ali dar ân zendegi mi-konad bozorg-ast.
    That building, where Ali lives, is big.
Usage notes edit

This suffix is attached as a suffix to a noun in a sentence and acts as the indefinite object marker. Most words use the non-joining ⁧ای(-i), unless the word ends in the long vowels ⁧ـا() and ⁧ـو(-u) or a non-joining consonant. For instance, “a house” would be ⁧خانه‌ای(xâne-ye), “a dog” would be ⁧سگ‌ای(sag-i), and “houses” would be ⁧خانه‌هایی(xâne-hâ-yi).

Urdu edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Sauraseni Prakrit -𑀇𑀅 (-ia), from Sanskrit -इक (-ika, diminutive suffix) or Sanskrit -ईय (-īya, adjectival suffix). Later influenced by Persian ⁧ـی(-i).

Suffix edit

ـی () (Hindi spelling -ई)

  1. relating to, forms adjectives from nouns
    ‎⁧جوکھم(jokhim, risk) + ‎⁧ـی() → ‎⁧جوکھمی(jokhimī, risky)
    ‎⁧پستہ(pista, pistachio) + ‎⁧ـی() → ‎⁧پستئی(pistaī, having the color of [shelled] pistachios)

Etymology 2 edit

Borrowed from the nominative singular form of Sanskrit -इन् (-in, doer, possessor).

Suffix edit

ـی (īm (Hindi spelling -ई)

  1. doer, possessor
    ‎⁧ساتھ(sāth, company, support) + ‎⁧ـی() → ‎⁧ساتھی(sāthī, companion, partner)
    ‎⁧روگ(rog, sickness, disease) + ‎⁧ـی() → ‎⁧روگی(rogī, sick person, patient)

Etymology 3 edit

Borrowed from Classical Persianـی(), from Middle Persian𐭩𐭧(yḥ /⁠-īh⁠/).

Suffix edit

ـی (f (Hindi spelling -ई)

  1. forms abstract nouns from adjectives or common nouns
    ‎⁧روشن(rauśan, bright) + ‎⁧ـی() → ‎⁧روشنی(rauśnī, brightness)

Derived terms edit