See also: and か゚

U+304C, が
HIRAGANA LETTER GA
Composition: [U+304B] + ◌゙ [U+3099]

[U+304B]
Hiragana
[U+304D]

Japanese edit

Stroke order
 

Etymology 1 edit

The hiragana character (ka) with a dakuten ().

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ŋa̠] (morpheme-medial alternative pronunciation)

Syllable edit

(ga

  1. The hiragana syllable (ga). Its equivalent in katakana is (ga).
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Japonic *-nka. Compare Korean (-ga) (possibly borrowed from Japanese into Korean).[1]

Particle edit

(ga

  1. Indicates the subject of a sentence.
    (ねこ)(えさ)()べた
    Neko ga esa o tabeta.
    The cat [is the thing that] ate the cat food.
    (いぬ)いる。
    Inu ga iru.
    There is a dog.
    ()ある。
    Ki ga aru.
    There is a tree.
  2. (formal) conjunction ("but")
    Synonym: けれども (keredomo)
    (いぬ)()きだ(ねこ)(きら)いだ。
    Inu wa suki da ga, neko wa kirai da.
    I like dogs but I hate cats.
  3. (formal) Used to introduce a new topic into the discussion.
    Synonym: けれども (keredomo)
    先日(せんじつ)(けん)です []
    senjitsu no ken desu ga, []
    About that thing from yesterday; []
  4. (literary or Kagoshima) possessive used to connect nouns, most often seen in place names as .
    (われ)(われ)(こころ)
    wareware ga kokoro
    our [collective] heart
    ()()()(おか)
    Fujimigaoka
    Fuji View Hill
    (せき)(はら)
    Sekigahara
    Gateway Plains (site of the Battle of Sekigahara)
    おやっが
    oyagga
    father's (Kagoshima dialect)
    あにょが
    anyoga
    brother's (Kagoshima dialect)
  5. Used after interjected nouns to express contempt.
    このくそが!
    Kono kuso ga!
    You piece of shit!
Usage notes edit
  • Words that continue to be used with the literary possessive today include まま (mama) and ため (tame).
    ()れるままiwareru ga mama(doing) as one is told
    (きみ)ためkimi ga tame nifor you
Alternative forms edit
  • (literary possessive): (ga)
See also edit

Etymology 3 edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entries.
2
[noun] picture, drawing, painting
[noun] movie, film, video
[suffix] genre or style of painting
4
[affix] bud; sprout; shoot
6
[noun] the ego, self
[noun] self-righteousness
[noun] (Buddhism) obstinacy
[noun] (Hinduism) atman
[affix] self, oneself, myself
[affix] egotism, selfishness
[affix] (Buddhism) atman
S
[affix] an animal's fang or tusk
[affix] an elephant's tusk: ivory
[affix] a tooth
S
[affix] roof tile
[affix] Used phonetically.
S
[adjective] elegant
[noun] elegance
S
[affix] hungry; hunger
J
[affix] to bend down; to lie down; to prostrate
J
[affix] sudden, abrupt, unexpected
J
[noun] vehicle; horse-drawn carriage
H
[noun] a moth (insect similar to a butterfly)
Alternative spelling
(This term, , is the hiragana spelling of the above terms.)
For a list of all kanji read as , see Category:Japanese kanji read as が.)

(The following entries are uncreated: , , .)

References edit

  1. ^ 鄭光, 主格 ‘가’의 發達에 대하여: 近代國語資料의 解釋을 中心으로, 우리문화, 2.

Okinawan edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Ryukyuan *ga, from Proto-Japonic *-nka (nominative and genitive case marker). Cognate with Japanese (ga).

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

(ga

  1. genitive case marker
    1. Indicates possession: of, -'s
      (あり)書物(しむち)
      ari-ga shimuchi
      His book
  2. nominative case marker
    1. Indicates the subject of a sentence.
      (あり)()ゃん。
      Ari-ga chan.
      He came.
      学生(がくそー)毎日(めーなち)学校(がっこー)んかい()ちゃびーん。
      Gakusō-ga mēnachi gakkō-nkai ichabīn.
      The students go to school every day.
  3. particle indicating purpose/intent; for; to
    (いゆ)(とぅ)()ちゅん。
    Iyu tui-ga ichun.
    I will go (to) catch a fish.
Usage notes edit
  • (ga) is used for personal names or pronouns, (nu) is used otherwise. See *ga for details.
  • Historically, after an original Proto-Ryukyuan */i/, ga palatalizes to gya, as seen in the Omoro Sōshi.

Etymology 2 edit

Cognate with Japanese (ka).

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

(ga

  1. final interrogative particle, similar to a question mark ("?"). Appear only in wh-questions,but followed by やー can be used in other interrogations.
    今日(ちゅー)(ぬー)さびた
    Chū-ya nū sabitaga?
    What did you do today?

References edit

  • ” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.
  • ” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.
  • ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary (archived; reopens 2024).