This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: ?
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *ba (Matisoff, STEDT; Benedict, 1972; Chou, 1972)

Likely cognate with Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bəw (to carry (on back or shoulders)). Note the similarity with:



  1. to carry
  2. shoulder


  • Old Chinese:
    (*bəʔ (B-S), *bɯʔ (ZS), to carry on the back; to bear; to lose, to fail)
    (*pˁək-s (B-S), *pɯːgs (ZS), back (of body))
    (*m-pˁək-s (B-S), *bɯːgs (ZS), to turn the back on, to carry on the back)
    (*pˁək (B-S), *pɯːg (ZS), north, i.e. what the back is turned to when facing south)
    • Middle Chinese: (bɨuX), (puʌiH, buʌiH), (pək)

         Japanese:   (ほく, ​hoku)
            Korean:   (, buk)
            Vietnamese:  bắc ()

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: () /fu⁵¹/); (bèi, back) /peɪ̯⁵¹/, (bēi, to carry on the back) /peɪ̯⁵⁵/; (běi) /peɪ̯²¹⁴/)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: འབའ་བ ('ba' ba, to bring, to carry)
  • Tani
    • Apatani: ba (carry on the back or shoulder)
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish