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U+5317, 北
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5317

[U+5316]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5318]
U+F963, 北
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F963

[U+F962]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F964]
北 U+2F82B, 北
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F82B
匆
[U+2F82A]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 卉
[U+2F82C]
Commons:Category
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TranslingualEdit

Stroke order (Japan)
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 21, +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 中一心 (LMP), four-corner 11110, composition ⿲⿱(GJKV) or ⿰⿱⿰(HT))

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 152, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2574
  • Dae Jaweon: page 342, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 262, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5317

Further readingEdit


ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms
𧉥
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
  • (Wu)

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Ideogrammic compound (會意) – two men back to back. Originally meaning “back”; the character (OC *pɯːɡs, *bɯːɡs) refers to the original word.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ba (to carry (on back), shoulder).

The sense of “north” is derived from “back (of body)”: “back” → “to turn the back to; to retreat” → “north”.

The ancient Chinese value the southern direction and houses are traditionally oriented along a north-south axis, as evident in the fengshui theory and orientation of buildings in Chinese Neolithic sites. North is the direction the back is oriented to when the person is facing south.

Compare the graphical origin of (OC *nuːm, “south”) (Sagart, 1988).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • pak - vernacular;
  • pok - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /pei²¹⁴/
    Harbin /pei²¹³/
    Tianjin /pei¹³/
    Jinan /pei²¹³/
    Qingdao /pe⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /pei²⁴/
    Xi'an /pei²¹/
    Xining /pɨ⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /pia¹³/
    /pɛ¹³/
    Lanzhou /pə¹³/
    Ürümqi /pei²¹³/
    Wuhan /pɤ²¹³/
    Chengdu /pe³¹/
    Guiyang /pɛ²¹/
    Kunming /pə³¹/
    Nanjing /pəʔ⁵/
    Hefei /pɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /pei⁵³/
    Pingyao /pʌʔ¹³/ ~城
    /piʌʔ¹³/ ~面面
    Hohhot /piəʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /poʔ⁵/
    Suzhou /poʔ⁵/
    Hangzhou /poʔ⁵/
    Wenzhou /pai²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /peʔ²¹/
    Tunxi /pi⁵/
    Xiang Changsha /pə²⁴/
    Xiangtan /pæ²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /pɛt̚⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /pet̚¹/
    Taoyuan /pet̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /pɐk̚⁵/
    Nanning /pɐk̚⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /pɐk̚⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /pɔk̚³²/
    /pak̚³²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /pɔyʔ²³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /pɛ²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /pak̚²/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔbak̚⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (1)
    Final () (131)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /pək̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /pək̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /pək̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /pək̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /pək̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /pək̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /pək̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    bo
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    běi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ pok ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*pˁək/
    English north

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 414
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*pɯːɡ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. north; northern
    2. to be defeated; to fail

    Coordinate termsEdit

    • (compass points)
    西北 東北
    西  
    西南 東南


    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (ほく) (hoku)
    • Korean: (, buk)
    • Vietnamese: bắc ()

    Others:

    • Japanese: (ペー) (, north wind (mahjong tile))

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Original form of (bèi, “back; to betray”).

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. north
    2. escape, run away

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    きた
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Possibly from Old Japanese.

    Ultimate derivation unknown.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (きた) (kita

    1. north (cardinal point)
      • 905, Kokin Wakashū (book 9, poem 412)
        (きた)()(かり)()くなるつれてこし(かず)はたらでぞかへるべらなる
        kita e yuku kari zo nakunaru tsurete koshi kazu wa tarade zo kaeruberanaru
        (please add an English translation of this example)
      Antonym: (minami)
    2. the North (northern part of a region)
    3. a northerly, north wind
      Synonym: 北風 (kitakaze, hokufū)
      Antonym: (minami)
    4. Short for 北の方 (kita no kata): northward
    5. a developed country
      from the many countries in the Northern Hemisphere are considered developed
    Coordinate termsEdit
    • (compass points)
    西北(せいほく) (seihoku)/北西(ほくせい) (hokusei) (きた) (kita) 東北(とうほく) (tōhoku)/北東(ほくとう) (hokutō)
    西(にし) (nishi)   (ひがし) (higashi)
    西南(せいなん) (seinan)/南西(なんせい) (nansei) (みなみ) (minami) 東南(とうなん) (tōnan)/南東(なんとう) (nantō)


    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (きた) (Kita

    1. Kita (one of 23 special wards in Tokyo prefecture, Japan)
    2. (historical) the red-light district north of Edo Castle
      Synonyms: 北郭 (Hokkaku), 北国 (Hokkoku)
    3. a surname
    4. a female given name

    VerbEdit

    (きた)する (kita surusuru (stem (きた) (kita shi), past (きた)した (kita shita))

    1. to go northwards
      Synonym: 北進する (hokushin suru)
    ConjugationEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    From Mandarin (běi).

    NounEdit

    (ペー) (

    1. (mahjong) north wind (mahjong tile)
      Hypernym: 風牌 (kazehai, fanpai)
    2. (mahjong) a (yaku, winning hand) with a triplet or quad of north wind tiles; depending on wind round and player's seat wind, it is worth either 1 or 2 (han, doubles)
      Hypernym: 役牌 (yakuhai, yaku-pai)
    Coordinate termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC pək̚). Recorded as Middle Korean 븍〮 (Yale: puk) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 북녘 (bungnyeok buk))

    1. Hanja form? of (north).

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    From Middle Chinese / (MC buʌiH, puʌiH).

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 달아날 (daranal bae))

    1. Hanja form? of (to escape; flee).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Kanji in this term
    にし
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with mainland Japanese 西 (nishi, west).

    NounEdit

    (hiragana にし, rōmaji nishi)

    1. north; northern; northwards

    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • ニシ” in Haisai Okinawan Dialect.
    • にし【北】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.
    • ニシ(にし)” in Okinawan Dialect Dictionary - Ajima.
    • にし” in Okinawan Dictionary - KozaWeb.
    • ニシ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

    Southern Amami-OshimaEdit

    KanjiEdit

    ReadingsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese 西 (nishi, west).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana にし, rōmaji nishi)

    1. north; northern; northwards

    ReferencesEdit

    • にし【北】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (bắc, bác, bấc, bậc, bước)

    1. north

    ZhuangEdit

    NounEdit

    1. Sawndip form of byaek (vegetable)