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TranslingualEdit

Japanese stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 21, +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 中一心 (LMP), four-corner 11110, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 152, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2574
  • Dae Jaweon: page 342, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 262, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5317

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*pɯːɡs, *bɯːɡs
*bɯːɡs
*bɯːɡs
*bɯːɡs
*bɯːɡs
*pɯːɡ

Ideogrammic compound (會意) – two men back to back. Originally meaning “back”; the character (OC *pɯːɡs, *bɯːɡs) refers to the original word.

EtymologyEdit

The sense of “north” is derived from “back (of body)”: “back” → “to turn the back to; to retreat” → “north”.

The ancient Chinese value the southern direction and houses are traditionally oriented along a north-south axis, as evident in the fengshui theory and orientation of buildings in Chinese Neolithic sites. North is the direction the back is oriented to when the person is facing south.

Compare the graphical origin of (OC *nuːm, “south”) (Sagart, 1988).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • pak - vernacular;
  • pok - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /pei²¹⁴/
    Harbin /pei²¹³/
    Tianjin /pei¹³/
    Jinan /pei²¹³/
    Qingdao /pe⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /pei²⁴/
    Xi'an /pei²¹/
    Xining /pɨ⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /pia¹³/
    /pɛ¹³/
    Lanzhou /pə¹³/
    Ürümqi /pei²¹³/
    Wuhan /pɤ²¹³/
    Chengdu /pe³¹/
    Guiyang /pɛ²¹/
    Kunming /pə³¹/
    Nanjing /pəʔ⁵/
    Hefei /pɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /pei⁵³/
    Pingyao /pʌʔ¹³/ ~城
    /piʌʔ¹³/ ~面面
    Hohhot /piəʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /poʔ⁵/
    Suzhou /poʔ⁵/
    Hangzhou /poʔ⁵/
    Wenzhou /pai²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /peʔ²¹/
    Tunxi /pi⁵/
    Xiang Changsha /pə²⁴/
    Xiangtan /pæ²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /pɛʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /pet̚¹/
    Taoyuan /pet̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /pɐk̚⁵/
    Nanning /pɐk̚⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /pɐk̚⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /pɔk̚³²/
    /pak̚³²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /pɔyʔ²³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /pɛ²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /pak̚²/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔbak̚⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (1)
    Final () (131)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /pək̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /pək̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /pək̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /pək̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /pək̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /pək̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /pək̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    bo
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    běi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ pok ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*pˤək/
    English north

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 414
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*pɯːɡ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. north; northern
    2. to be defeated; to fail

    Coordinate termsEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. north
    2. escape, run away

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Kanji in this term
    きた
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    Ultimate derivation unknown.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana きた, rōmaji kita)

    1. north (compass direction)
      Antonym: (minami)
    2. the North (northern part of a region)
    3. the north wind
      Synonym: 北風 (kitakaze, hokufū)
    4. a developed country
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana きた, katakana キタ, rōmaji Kita)

    1. a place name
    2. a surname

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (buk, bae)

    1. north, northern

    OkinawanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese 西 (nishi, west).

    KanjiEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana にし, romaji nishi)

    1. north

    Derived termsEdit


    Southern Amami-OshimaEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese 西 (nishi, west).

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana にし, romaji nishi)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana にし, romaji nishi)

    1. north

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (bắc, bác, bấc, bậc, bước)

    1. north