This Proto-Uralic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Often reconstructed as *juxe-, mainly on the basis of Samic and Finnic. Aikio (2002) argues that most other languages indicate original instead, with irregular development in Samic and Finnic. Zhivlov (2014) proposes that the developments *-ëx- > pre-Finnic *-ox-, pre-Samic *-ux- would actually be regular.

An Indo-European or pre-Indo-Iranian loan etymology has been proposed, from a reduplicated present *ǵʰu-ǵʰew- based on Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰew- (to pour); but if the Samic form with *u is secondary, this cannot be upheld.

A secondary meaning "to flow" appears to be indicated in a number of fossilized derivatives in Finnic, e.g. *joostak (to run, to flow), *joottadak (to give to drink; to solder).



  1. to drink
  2. to flow?


  • Samoyedic: *ër- (to drink), *ëkəl- (to drink avidly)
  • Ugric:
  • Permic:
  • Mari:
  • Samic: *juxe- > *jukëtēk (see there for further descendants)
  • Finnic: *joxe- > *joodak (see there for further descendants)


  • Aikio, Ante. 2002. "New and Old Samoyed Etymologies". Finnisch-Ugrische Forschungen 57, pp. 9–57.
  • Itkonen, Erkki; Kulonen, Ulla-Maija, editors (1992–2000) Suomen sanojen alkuperä [The origin of Finnish words] (in Finnish), Helsinki: Institute for the Languages of Finland/Finnish Literature Society, →ISBN
  • Rédei, Károly (1986–88) Uralisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Uralic Etymological Dictionary] (in German), Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó
  • Zhivlov, Mikhail. 2014. "Studies in Uralic vocalism III". In Journal of Language Relationship 12, pp. 113–148.

Further readingEdit

  • Koponen, Eino; Ruppel, Klaas; Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002-2008) Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[1], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland
  • Entry #195 in Uralonet, online Uralic etymological database of the Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.