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archi- (arch-, highest) +‎ dux (duke). First attested in the 10th century in reference to Bruno the Great, who ruled simultaneously as an archbishop and a duke, but only current after revival by Rudolf IV of Austria in a forged document, the Privilegium Maius (1358–1359), to justify claims of precedence over other princes of the Holy Roman Empire.



archidux m (genitive archiducis); third declension

  1. (Medieval Latin) archduke, chief duke or prince
    • 1358–1359, Rudolf IV of Austria (spuriously attributed to Frederick I Barbarossa), Privilegium Maius:
      Si quisbusvis curiis publicis imperii dux Austrie praesens fuerit, unus de palatinis archiducibus est censendus, et nichilominus in consessu et incessu ad latus dextrum imperii post electores principes obtineat primum locum.
      If the duke of Austria should be present in whatsoever public courts of the empire, he is to be reckoned as one of the palatine archdukes, and in any case in assembly and procession to the right side of the empire [emperor] he is to occupy the first place after the prince-electors.


Third-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative archidux archiducēs
Genitive archiducis archiducum
Dative archiducī archiducibus
Accusative archiducem archiducēs
Ablative archiduce archiducibus
Vocative archidux archiducēs

Related termsEdit


  • German: Erzherzog (calque)
  • Middle French: archeduc