Appendix:Latin third declension

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  • The paradigmata can be without examples as is done at Appendix:Latin second declension
  • The paradigmata can be without locative, at least for common nouns like homo -- additional paradigmata for proper nouns can be added”.
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Nouns Edit

general rule: Parisyllables and Imparisyllables Edit

Third Declension Edit

Cases Declension Imparisyllables Declension Parisyllables
Masculine/Feminine Neuter Masculine/Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative --- -ēs --- -a --- -ēs --- -ia
Vocative --- -ēs --- -a --- -ēs --- -ia
Accusative -em -ēs --- -a -em -ēs --- -ia
Genitive -is -um -is -um -is -ium -is -ium
Dative -ibus -ibus -ibus -ibus
Ablative -e -ibus -e -ibus -e -ibus -ibus
  • Parisyllabic, nouns that have an equal number of syllables in the nominative and in the genitive singular (e.g. nom. civis, gen. civis).
  • Imparisyllables, nouns that do not have an equal number of syllables in the nominative and in the genitive singular (e.g. nom. consul, gen. consulis).
  • In some "imparisyllabic" the genitive plural is in "ium" est: lis, litis; dos, dotis; mus,muris; etc.
  • In some cases the accusative singular in "-im" and the ablative singular in "-i" are: turris,-is; puppis,-is; sitis,-is; vis,-is; tussis,-is; securis,-is; febris,-is.
  • "Animal, -is"; "calcar,-is" and other neuter nouns that end in "-al/-ar" are considered as parisyllables.

Description Edit

Latin nouns of the third declension comprise consonant stems and i-stems (e.g., as the i in the neuter genitive plural animalium). They are of all three genders, and have genitives in -is. The forms of the nominative and vocative singular are identical to each other and are often quite different from other cases, in which case both stems are given in citation forms.

Words borrowed from Greek's third declension are inflected with a varying mixture of Greek and Latin case endings.

Examples Edit

Consonant stem Edit

Citation form: homō, hominis m

Case Singular Plural
nominative homō homin·ēs
genitive homin·is homin·um
dative homin·ī homin·ibus
accusative homin·em homin·ēs
ablative homin·e homin·ibus
vocative homō homin·ēs
locative homin·e (-ī) homin·ibus

Neuter consonant stem Edit

Citation form: nōmen, nōminis n

Case Singular Plural
nominative nōmen nōmin·a
genitive nōmin·is nōmin·um
dative nōmin·ī nōmin·ibus
accusative nōmen nōmin·a
ablative nōmin·e nōmin·ibus
vocative nōmen nōmin·a
locative nōmin·ī nōmin·ibus

i-stem Edit

Citation form: turris, turris f

Case Singular Plural
nominative turris turrēs
genitive turris turrium
dative turrī turribus
accusative turrem (-im) turrēs (-īs)
ablative turre (-ī) turribus
vocative turris turrēs
locative turrī turribus

"Pure" i-stem Edit

Citation form: animal, animālis n

Case Singular Plural
nominative animal animālia
genitive animālis animālium
dative animālī animālibus
accusative animal animālia
ablative animālī animālibus
vocative animal animālia
locative animālī animālibus

Mixed declension (mixed i-stem) Edit

Citation form: nox, noctis f

Case Singular Plural
nominative nox noctēs
genitive noctis noctium
dative noctī noctibus
accusative noctem noctēs
ablative nocte noctibus
vocative nox noctēs
locative noctī noctibus

Greek declensions Edit

Declesion general Edit

Citation form: āēr, āeris m, sometimes f

Case Singular Plural
nominative āēr āer·ēs
genitive āer·is / āer·os āer·um
dative āer·ī āer·ibus
accusative āer·a / āer·em āer·ēs
ablative āer·e āer·ibus
vocative āēr āer·ēs
locative āer·ī āer·ibus

Citation form: tigris, tigridis m and f

Case Singular Plural
nominative tigris tigr·ēs / tigrid·ēs
genitive tigrid·is / tigr·is / tigrid·os tigr·ium
dative tigrid·ī / tigr·ī tigr·ibus
accusative tigr·im / tigr·in tigr·is / tigrid·as
ablative tigrid·e / tigr·ī tigr·ibus
vocative tigris tigr·ēs / tigrid·ēs
locative tigrid·ī / tigr·ī tigr·ibus

Similiar to i-stem declension:

Case Singular Plural
nominative -is -es
genitive -is; -os; -eos -ium; -eon
dative -i -ibus
accusative -im; -in -is, -es; -eis
ablative -i -ibus
vocative -is -es


For feminine proper nouns from Greek in with genitive in -ūs, see Appendix:Latin fourth declension § Feminine -ō form (from Greek).

five types of Greek nouns third declension Edit

Excluding proper nouns, there seem to be around 4-5 types of declensions of greek nouns as part of Latin's 3rd declension:

1. in -ō, like ēchō, -ūs, f.
  • Gen. sg. -ûs, all other singular cases -ô. Plural isn't mentioned in the sources above, thus should be regular (e.g. êchês in
  • echo is said to be in 3rd declension - not in 4 as it's here at Wiktionary.
  • Georges mentions acc. sg as -ōn for êchô.
  • Like Dîdô it might also be -onis, -onî, -onem, -one (gen., dat., acc., abl. sg.).
  • Maybe some of these words were adopted like Latin words in -o, -onis, f.
2. chaos, epos, melos - n.
  • It's commonly said that some cases are missing or were missing in antique times.
Case n.
Nom. -os
Gen. -i; -us
Dat. -o; -i
Acc. -os
Abl. -o
Voc. -os
Nom. -ē (-ea)
Gen. -um
Dat. -ibus
Abl. -ibus

There are 3 declension variants: 1. more like Greek declension; 2. influenced by Latin's second declension and 3. changed to masculine words like Latin's second declension (e.g. cētus, -i, m. from cētos, -us, n. = (τό) κῆτος).

3. chelys (f.)
  • It is similar to the variant that is similar to i-stem declension (see below), but often without i, e.g.: as -n instead of -in added to chely-, or as -yn instead of -in added to chel-.
  • Instead of e.g. -ibus in dat.&abl. pl. it might also be chelybus (Lewis Marcus).
  • Somewhere forms like chelin instead of chelyn were mentioned.
4. Like i-declension
Case m./f.
Nom. -is
Gen. -is; -eos, -ios
Acc. -im; -in
Voc. -is (-i)
Case Plural
Nom. -ēs
Gen. -ium; -eōn
Dat. -ibus
Acc. -īs, -ēs
Abl. -ibus
Voc. -ēs
  • Vowel lengths: Gen. sg.: In older English works (A&G, L&S) it is -eōs instead of -eos. Allen & Greenough and Lewis & Short have -eōs; Lewis Marcus, Georges, Pons have -eos. As Georges and Pons are newer than A&G and L&S, it seems more reliable (cf. stēlla, as opposed to stella).
  • Examples: haeresis, basis (acc. pl. also -e͡is and accourding to Lewis Marcus with other irregular forms), tigris (gen. sg. -is), poēsis (poësis)
5. Like consonantic declension
Cases m./f. or ys, m./f. n.
Nom. ~(s)/~(ēr)/~(n) ~(ys) -a
Gen. -is; -os ‡¹
Dat. -ī; (-i)
Acc. -em; -a -a
Abl. -e
Voc. ~(s)/~(ēr)/~(n) (~ys), -y -a
Kasus Plural
Nom. -ēs; -es -a
Gen. -um -um & -orum
Dat. -ibus; ‡² -ibus & -is
Acc. -ēs; -as (-es) ‡³ -a
Abl. -ibus; ‡² -ibus & -is
Voc. -ēs; -es -a
  • ‡¹ (especially) by words with gen. sg. in dis it is also dos
  • ‡² a) Accourding to Lewis Marcus some words have the ending is resp. -isi and -ibus, e.g. heroisi from heros. b) Weyh writes that dat. pl. can be -si and -sin (example: ethesi), and Georges and Lewis & Short have abl. pl. ethesin of ēthos. "herosi" can be found, it's e.g. in Prisciani Caesariensis Grammatici Opera ("non herosi [...] herosi"). c) ἥρως is like herosi[n] in dat. pl. Thus -si[n] in dat. and abl. pl. makes sense, but heroisi seems wrong. -- Maybe pure Greek declensions (in singular and plural) + (old) transcription into Latin should be added, so one can see what might be possible. (?)
  • ‡³ (at least) some words have -es and -ēs/-as
  • Words of neuter gender have forms of the 3rd and of the 2nd declension in plural. Well, poēma/poëma has those forms, but that could also be an exception.


  • hērōs, adamās (also adamāns), lebēs (Greek-like acc. pl. with -es and -as)
  • lampas (Greek-like acc. pl. with -es and -as), tigris (-idis; having the forms of tigris, -is in gen. sg. and nom., gen., dat. and abl. pl.), delphīn (also delphīs)
  • pēlamys, chlamys
  • crāter, āēr
  • poēma (poëma), n.

Adjectives Edit

Description Edit

Latin nouns of the third declension comprise consonant stems and i-stems. The consonant stems include the comparative form of adjectives. This declension is divided into three subcategories: adjectives of one termination (which includes present participles), adjectives of two terminations (one for m and f, and one for n), and adjectives of three terminations (which are generally -er m, -ris f and -re n).

Examples Edit

One-termination consonant stem Edit

Citation form: vetus, -eris

Case m f singular n singular m f plural n plural
nominative vetus vetus veter·ēs veter·a
genitive veter·is veter·is veter·um veter·um
dative veter·ī veter·ī veter·ibus veter·ibus
accusative veter·em vetus veter·ēs veter·a
ablative veter·e veter·e veter·ibus veter·ibus
vocative vetus vetus veter·ēs veter·a
locative veter·ī veter·ī veter·ibus veter·ibus

One-termination i-stem Edit

Citation form: atrōx, -ōcis

Case m f singular n singular m f plural n plural
nominative atrōx atrōx atrōc·ēs atrōc·ia
genitive atrōc·is atrōc·is atrōc·ium atrōc·ium
dative atrōc·ī atrōc·ī atrōc·ibus atrōc·ibus
accusative atrōc·em atrōx atrōc·ēs, ·īs atrōc·ia
ablative atrōc·ī atrōc·ī atrōc·ibus atrōc·ibus
vocative atrōx atrōx atrōc·ēs atrōc·ia
locative atrōc·ī atrōc·ī atrōc·ibus atrōc·ibus

Two-termination consonant stem (comparatives) Edit

Citation form: melior, -us

Case m f singular n singular m f plural n plural
nominative melior melius meliōr·ēs meliōr·a
genitive meliōr·is meliōr·is meliōr·um meliōr·um
dative meliōr·ī meliōr·ī meliōr·ibus meliōr·ibus
accusative meliōr·em melius meliōr·ēs meliōr·a
ablative meliōr·e meliōr·e meliōr·ibus meliōr·ibus
vocative melior melius meliōr·ēs meliōr·a
locative meliōr·ī meliōr·ī meliōr·ibus meliōr·ibus

Two-termination i-stem Edit

Citation form: tristis, -e

Case m f singular n singular m f plural n plural
nominative trist·is trist·e trist·ēs trist·ia
genitive trist·is trist·is trist·ium trist·ium
dative trist·ī trist·ī trist·ibus trist·ibus
accusative trist·em trist·e trist·ēs, -īs trist·ia
ablative trist·ī trist·ī trist·ibus trist·ibus
vocative trist·is trist·e trist·ēs trist·ia
locative trist·ī trist·ī trist·ibus trist·ibus

See also Edit