PhuthiEdit

VerbEdit

-nquma

  1. to become dry

InflectionEdit

This verb needs an inflection-table template.


XhosaEdit

EtymologyEdit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

VerbEdit

-nquma?

  1. (transitive) to congeal, to freeze

InflectionEdit

This verb needs an inflection-table template.


ZuluEdit

EtymologyEdit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

PronunciationEdit

IPA(key): /ᵑǃúːma/

VerbEdit

-nqúma

  1. (transitive) to cut off, to sever, to amputate
  2. (transitive) to decide

InflectionEdit

Tone H
Infinitive ukunquma
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukunquma ukunganqumi
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular nquma -nqume
Plural nqumani -nqumeni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyanquma, nginquma enginqumayo, enginquma nginquma anginqumi enginganqumi nginganqumi
2nd singular uyanquma, unquma onqumayo, onquma unquma awunqumi onganqumi unganqumi
1st plural siyanquma, sinquma esinqumayo, esinquma sinquma asinqumi esinganqumi singanqumi
2nd plural niyanquma, ninquma eninqumayo, eninquma ninquma aninqumi eninganqumi ninganqumi
Class 1 uyanquma, unquma onqumayo, onquma enquma akanqumi onganqumi enganqumi
Class 2 bayanquma, banquma abanqumayo, abanquma benquma abanqumi abanganqumi benganqumi
Class 3 uyanquma, unquma onqumayo, onquma unquma awunqumi onganqumi unganqumi
Class 4 iyanquma, inquma enqumayo, enquma inquma ayinqumi enganqumi inganqumi
Class 5 liyanquma, linquma elinqumayo, elinquma linquma alinqumi elinganqumi linganqumi
Class 6 ayanquma, anquma anqumayo, anquma enquma awanqumi anganqumi enganqumi
Class 7 siyanquma, sinquma esinqumayo, esinquma sinquma asinqumi esinganqumi singanqumi
Class 8 ziyanquma, zinquma ezinqumayo, ezinquma zinquma azinqumi ezinganqumi zinganqumi
Class 9 iyanquma, inquma enqumayo, enquma inquma ayinqumi enganqumi inganqumi
Class 10 ziyanquma, zinquma ezinqumayo, ezinquma zinquma azinqumi ezinganqumi zinganqumi
Class 11 luyanquma, lunquma olunqumayo, olunquma lunquma alunqumi olunganqumi lunganqumi
Class 14 buyanquma, bunquma obunqumayo, obunquma bunquma abunqumi obunganqumi bunganqumi
Class 15 kuyanquma, kunquma okunqumayo, okunquma kunquma akunqumi okunganqumi kunganqumi
Class 17 kuyanquma, kunquma okunqumayo, okunquma kunquma akunqumi okunganqumi kunganqumi
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular nginqumile, nginqumē enginqumile, enginqumē nginqumile, nginqumē anginqumanga enginganqumanga nginganqumanga
2nd singular unqumile, unqumē onqumile, onqumē unqumile, unqumē awunqumanga onganqumanga unganqumanga
1st plural sinqumile, sinqumē esinqumile, esinqumē sinqumile, sinqumē asinqumanga esinganqumanga singanqumanga
2nd plural ninqumile, ninqumē eninqumile, eninqumē ninqumile, ninqumē aninqumanga eninganqumanga ninganqumanga
Class 1 unqumile, unqumē onqumile, onqumē enqumile, enqumē akanqumanga onganqumanga enganqumanga
Class 2 banqumile, banqumē abanqumile, abanqumē benqumile, benqumē abanqumanga abanganqumanga benganqumanga
Class 3 unqumile, unqumē onqumile, onqumē unqumile, unqumē awunqumanga onganqumanga unganqumanga
Class 4 inqumile, inqumē enqumile, enqumē inqumile, inqumē ayinqumanga enganqumanga inganqumanga
Class 5 linqumile, linqumē elinqumile, elinqumē linqumile, linqumē alinqumanga elinganqumanga linganqumanga
Class 6 anqumile, anqumē anqumile, anqumē enqumile, enqumē awanqumanga anganqumanga enganqumanga
Class 7 sinqumile, sinqumē esinqumile, esinqumē sinqumile, sinqumē asinqumanga esinganqumanga singanqumanga
Class 8 zinqumile, zinqumē ezinqumile, ezinqumē zinqumile, zinqumē azinqumanga ezinganqumanga zinganqumanga
Class 9 inqumile, inqumē enqumile, enqumē inqumile, inqumē ayinqumanga enganqumanga inganqumanga
Class 10 zinqumile, zinqumē ezinqumile, ezinqumē zinqumile, zinqumē azinqumanga ezinganqumanga zinganqumanga
Class 11 lunqumile, lunqumē olunqumile, olunqumē lunqumile, lunqumē alunqumanga olunganqumanga lunganqumanga
Class 14 bunqumile, bunqumē obunqumile, obunqumē bunqumile, bunqumē abunqumanga obunganqumanga bunganqumanga
Class 15 kunqumile, kunqumē okunqumile, okunqumē kunqumile, kunqumē akunqumanga okunganqumanga kunganqumanga
Class 17 kunqumile, kunqumē okunqumile, okunqumē kunqumile, kunqumē akunqumanga okunganqumanga kunganqumanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngānquma engānquma ngānquma anginqumanga enginganqumanga nginganqumanga
2nd singular wānquma owānquma wānquma awunqumanga onganqumanga unganqumanga
1st plural sānquma esānquma sānquma asinqumanga esinganqumanga singanqumanga
2nd plural nānquma enānquma nānquma aninqumanga eninganqumanga ninganqumanga
Class 1 wānquma owānquma ānquma akanqumanga onganqumanga enganqumanga
Class 2 bānquma abānquma bānquma abanqumanga abanganqumanga benganqumanga
Class 3 wānquma owānquma wānquma awunqumanga onganqumanga unganqumanga
Class 4 yānquma eyānquma yānquma ayinqumanga enganqumanga inganqumanga
Class 5 lānquma elānquma lānquma alinqumanga elinganqumanga linganqumanga
Class 6 ānquma ānquma ānquma awanqumanga anganqumanga enganqumanga
Class 7 sānquma esānquma sānquma asinqumanga esinganqumanga singanqumanga
Class 8 zānquma ezānquma zānquma azinqumanga ezinganqumanga zinganqumanga
Class 9 yānquma eyānquma yānquma ayinqumanga enganqumanga inganqumanga
Class 10 zānquma ezānquma zānquma azinqumanga ezinganqumanga zinganqumanga
Class 11 lwānquma olwānquma lwānquma alunqumanga olunganqumanga lunganqumanga
Class 14 bānquma obānquma bānquma abunqumanga obunganqumanga bunganqumanga
Class 15 kwānquma okwānquma kwānquma akunqumanga okunganqumanga kunganqumanga
Class 17 kwānquma okwānquma kwānquma akunqumanga okunganqumanga kunganqumanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular nginganquma nginganquma ngingenqume ngingenqume
2nd singular unganquma unganquma ungenqume ungenqume
1st plural singanquma singanquma singenqume singenqume
2nd plural ninganquma ninganquma ningenqume ningenqume
Class 1 anganquma enganquma angenqume engenqume
Class 2 banganquma benganquma bangenqume bengenqume
Class 3 unganquma unganquma ungenqume ungenqume
Class 4 inganquma inganquma ingenqume ingenqume
Class 5 linganquma linganquma lingenqume lingenqume
Class 6 anganquma enganquma angenqume engenqume
Class 7 singanquma singanquma singenqume singenqume
Class 8 zinganquma zinganquma zingenqume zingenqume
Class 9 inganquma inganquma ingenqume ingenqume
Class 10 zinganquma zinganquma zingenqume zingenqume
Class 11 lunganquma lunganquma lungenqume lungenqume
Class 14 bunganquma bunganquma bungenqume bungenqume
Class 15 kunganquma kunganquma kungenqume kungenqume
Class 17 kunganquma kunganquma kungenqume kungenqume
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizonquma engizonquma ngizonquma angizunquma engingezunquma ngingezunquma
2nd singular uzonquma ozonquma uzonquma awuzunquma ongezunquma ungezunquma
1st plural sizonquma esizonquma sizonquma asizunquma esingezunquma singezunquma
2nd plural nizonquma enizonquma nizonquma anizunquma eningezunquma ningezunquma
Class 1 uzonquma ozonquma ezonquma akazunquma ongezunquma engezunquma
Class 2 bazonquma abazonquma bezonquma abazunquma abangezunquma bengezunquma
Class 3 uzonquma ozonquma uzonquma awuzunquma ongezunquma ungezunquma
Class 4 izonquma ezonquma izonquma ayizunquma engezunquma ingezunquma
Class 5 lizonquma elizonquma lizonquma alizunquma elingezunquma lingezunquma
Class 6 azonquma azonquma ezonquma awazunquma angezunquma engezunquma
Class 7 sizonquma esizonquma sizonquma asizunquma esingezunquma singezunquma
Class 8 zizonquma ezizonquma zizonquma azizunquma ezingezunquma zingezunquma
Class 9 izonquma ezonquma izonquma ayizunquma engezunquma ingezunquma
Class 10 zizonquma ezizonquma zizonquma azizunquma ezingezunquma zingezunquma
Class 11 luzonquma oluzonquma luzonquma aluzunquma olungezunquma lungezunquma
Class 14 buzonquma obuzonquma buzonquma abuzunquma obungezunquma bungezunquma
Class 15 kuzonquma okuzonquma kuzonquma akuzunquma okungezunquma kungezunquma
Class 17 kuzonquma okuzonquma kuzonquma akuzunquma okungezunquma kungezunquma
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyonquma engiyonquma ngiyonquma angiyunquma engingeyunquma ngingeyunquma
2nd singular uyonquma oyonquma uyonquma awuyunquma ongeyunquma ungeyunquma
1st plural siyonquma esiyonquma siyonquma asiyunquma esingeyunquma singeyunquma
2nd plural niyonquma eniyonquma niyonquma aniyunquma eningeyunquma ningeyunquma
Class 1 uyonquma oyonquma eyonquma akayunquma ongeyunquma engeyunquma
Class 2 bayonquma abayonquma beyonquma abayunquma abangeyunquma bengeyunquma
Class 3 uyonquma oyonquma uyonquma awuyunquma ongeyunquma ungeyunquma
Class 4 iyonquma eyonquma iyonquma ayiyunquma engeyunquma ingeyunquma
Class 5 liyonquma eliyonquma liyonquma aliyunquma elingeyunquma lingeyunquma
Class 6 ayonquma ayonquma eyonquma awayunquma angeyunquma engeyunquma
Class 7 siyonquma esiyonquma siyonquma asiyunquma esingeyunquma singeyunquma
Class 8 ziyonquma eziyonquma ziyonquma aziyunquma ezingeyunquma zingeyunquma
Class 9 iyonquma eyonquma iyonquma ayiyunquma engeyunquma ingeyunquma
Class 10 ziyonquma eziyonquma ziyonquma aziyunquma ezingeyunquma zingeyunquma
Class 11 luyonquma oluyonquma luyonquma aluyunquma olungeyunquma lungeyunquma
Class 14 buyonquma obuyonquma buyonquma abuyunquma obungeyunquma bungeyunquma
Class 15 kuyonquma okuyonquma kuyonquma akuyunquma okungeyunquma kungeyunquma
Class 17 kuyonquma okuyonquma kuyonquma akuyunquma okungeyunquma kungeyunquma
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular nginqume nginganqumi
2nd singular unqume unganqumi
1st plural sinqume singanqumi
2nd plural ninqume ninganqumi
Class 1 anqume anganqumi
Class 2 banqume banganqumi
Class 3 unqume unganqumi
Class 4 inqume inganqumi
Class 5 linqume linganqumi
Class 6 anqume anganqumi
Class 7 sinqume singanqumi
Class 8 zinqume zinganqumi
Class 9 inqume inganqumi
Class 10 zinqume zinganqumi
Class 11 lunqume lunganqumi
Class 14 bunqume bunganqumi
Class 15 kunqume kunganqumi
Class 17 kunqume kunganqumi
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular nganquma nganganquma, anganquma, anganganquma
2nd singular wanquma wanganquma, awanquma, awanganquma
1st plural sanquma sanganquma, asanquma, asanganquma
2nd plural nanquma nanganquma, ananquma, ananganquma
Class 1 wanquma wanganquma, akanquma, akanganquma
Class 2 banquma banganquma, abanquma, abanganquma
Class 3 wanquma wanganquma, awanquma, awanganquma
Class 4 yanquma yanganquma, ayanquma, ayanganquma
Class 5 lanquma langanquma, alanquma, alanganquma
Class 6 anquma anganquma, awanquma, awanganquma
Class 7 sanquma sanganquma, asanquma, asanganquma
Class 8 zanquma zanganquma, azanquma, azanganquma
Class 9 yanquma yanganquma, ayanquma, ayanganquma
Class 10 zanquma zanganquma, azanquma, azanganquma
Class 11 lwanquma lwanganquma, alwanquma, alwanganquma
Class 14 banquma banganquma, abanquma, abanganquma
Class 15 kwanquma kwanganquma, akwanquma, akwanganquma
Class 17 kwanquma kwanganquma, akwanquma, akwanganquma

ReferencesEdit