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o-grade (uncountable)

  1. (Indo-European studies) In Proto-Indo-European linguistics, an ablaut form of a Proto-Indo-European root, characterised by the presence of the */o/ vowel phoneme in place of */e/.
    Coordinate terms: e-grade, zero-grade
    Ancient Greek γόνος (gónos) is a reflex of *ǵónh₁os (race), which is itself an o-grade derivative of the root *ǵenh₁- (to beget; to produce, bear).
    • 2006, Donald Ringe, From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 12:
      A considerable number of derived nominals, especially thematic nouns, also exhibited o-grade roots.

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