See also: viz, vız, víz, viž, and vīž

English

edit

Alternative forms

edit

Etymology

edit

From Medieval Latin viꝫ, from Latin vidēlicet (that is to say, namely), short for vidēre licet (it is permitted to see or look (it is) legal). The ‘z’ was originally not a letter but a common Middle Latin scribal abbreviation that was used for -et, specifically a Tironian note. The symbol resembled ‘z’, or rather 3 and Ȝ, and hence is thus represented in type. Compare , the Tironian symbol for Latin et (and) (in isolation, not as suffix).

Pronunciation

edit

Conventionally read out as namely, to wit, or occasionally videlicet. Otherwise pronounced as follows:

Adverb

edit

viz. (not comparable)

  1. Videlicet: namely, to wit, that is to say, specifically, as an illustration.
    Synonyms: namely; see also Thesaurus:specifically
    • 1821 September–October, [Thomas De Quincey], “[Part II.] Introduction to the Pains of Opium.”, in Confessions of an English Opium-Eater, 2nd edition, London: [] [J. Moyes] for Taylor and Hessey, [], published 1823, →OCLC, page 119:
      I am at this period, viz. in 1812, living in a cottage; []
    • 1847 January – 1848 July, William Makepeace Thackeray, Vanity Fair [], London: Bradbury and Evans [], published 1848, →OCLC:
      The fact is, when Captain Dobbin blushed so, and looked so, it was necessary to inform the young ladies, viz., that he had been calling at Mr. Sedley's house already, []
    • 1993, Hans Kamp, Uwe Reyle, From Discourse to Logic: Introduction to Modeltheoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory[1], page 51:
      This, however, makes it necessary to distinguish between two different types of gaps, viz. between “singular NP gaps” and “plural NP gaps.”
    • 2012, Matti Sintonen, Realism in Action: Essays in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences[2]:
      As to (b), the joint intention, like any intention, commits the intending agents to carry out its content, viz. to act.

Usage notes

edit

viz. is used to introduce a list or series. It differs from i.e. in that what follows normally expands upon what has already been said, rather than merely restating it in other words; and from e.g. in that completeness or near-completeness is suggested, rather than a small selection of examples.

Translations

edit

See also

edit

Further reading

edit