Appendix:English pronunciation

English

The following tables show the IPA and enPR/AHD symbols which are used to represent the various sounds of the English language. The sounds of Received Pronunciation (RP, UK), General American pronunciation (GenAm, US), Canadian English (CanE), Australian English (AuE) and New Zealand English (NZE) are shown.

For vowels in other dialects, see Wikipedia's IPA chart for English.

An image of an old version of these tables is available.

Vowels

This vowel table lists both monophthongs and diphthongs.

IPA enPR / AHD examples
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg RP Flag of the United States.svg GenAm Flag of Canada.svg CanE Flag of Australia.svg AuE Flag of New Zealand.svg NZE
ɑː ɑ ɒ ä father, palm
æ ɛ ă bad, cat, ran[1][2]
æɹ ɛɹ ăr carry
æe ā day, pain
ɑː ɑɹ är arm, bard
ɛə / ɛː(ɹ) ɛɹ âr hair, there[3]
ɛ e ĕ bed[4]
ɛɹ ĕr merry
i ē ease, see
ɪ ɘ ĭ sit, city, bit
ɪ i city, very, ready
ɪ̈ , ɨ roses
ɪə ɪɹ ɪə ĭr, îr near, here, serious
[5] aɪ (ʌɪ) ɑe ī my, rice
ɒ ɑ ɒ ɔ ɒ ŏ not, wasp
əʊ əʉ ɐʉ ō no, go, hope
ɔə oɹ, ɔɹ ɔɹ ōr hoarse
ɔː ɔ ɒ ô law, caught
ɔː ɔɹ ôr horse
ɔɪ oe oi boy, noise
ʊ o͝o, ŏŏ put, foot
ʊə ʊɹ ʊə ʉə o͝or, ŏŏr tour, tourism
u ʉː o͞o, ōō lose, soon, through
aʊ (ʌʊ) æo ou house, now
ʌ a ŭ run, enough, up
ɜː ɝ, əɹ ɝː ɜː ɵː ûr fur, bird[6]
ə ɘ ə about
ə ɚ ə ɘ ər winner, enter[7]
  1. ^ Sometimes transcribed IPA(key): /a/ for RP, for example in dictionaries of the Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ See bad–lad split for more discussion of this vowel in Australian English.
  3. ^ Alternative symbols used in British dictionaries include IPA(key): /ɛː/ (Oxford University Press) and IPA(key): /eə/.
  4. ^ Sometimes transcribed IPA(key): /e/ for RP, for example in the Collins English Dictionary.
  5. ^ Also transcribed (e.g. by Oxford University Press) as /ʌɪ/
  6. ^ Alternatives include IPA(key): /əː/, for example in dictionaries of the Oxford University Press, and IPA(key): /ər/, for example in the Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  7. ^ Sometimes transcribed for GA as [əɹ] or (for transcriptions that represent both rhotic and non-rhotic pronunciations) as [ə(ɹ)].

Consonants

IPA enPR / AHD examples
b b but, web, rubble
t͡ʃ ch chat, teach, nature
d d dot, idea, nod
f f fan, left, enough, photo
ɡ g get, bag
h h ham
ʍ (hw)[1] hw which
d͡ʒ j joy, agile, age
k k cat, tack
x ᴋʜ loch (in Scottish English)
l l left
l̩ (əl)[2] l little
m m man, animal, him
m̩ (əm)[2] m spasm, prism
n n note, ant, pan
n̩ (ən)[2] n hidden
ŋ ng singer, ring
p p pen, spin, top, apple
ɹ[3] r run, very
s s set, list, ice
ʃ sh ash, sure, ration
t t ton, butt
θ th thin, nothing, moth
ð th this, father, clothe
v v voice, navel
w w wet
j y yes
z z zoo, quiz, rose
ʒ zh vision, treasure
  1. ^ Some phonologists dispute that /ʍ/ is a distinct phoneme in English, and use /hw/ instead.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Some phonologists dispute that /l̩/, /n̩/, /m̩/ are distinct phonemes in English, and use /əl/, /ən/, /əm/ instead.
  3. ^ Often written /r/, especially in works that cover only English, even though the sound is not a trill.

Other symbols

A stress mark is placed before the syllable that is stressed in IPA and after it in enPR / AHD.

IPA enPR
(AHD)
indicates
ˈ (ˈa) ʹ (aʹ) primary stress, as in rapping /ˈɹæpɪŋ/
ˌ (ˌa) ' (a') secondary stress (or sometimes tertiary stress) before the primary stress, tertiary stress after the primary stress as in battlefield /ˈbætəlˌfiːld/
a.a a-a division between syllables
 ̩ syllabic consonant, as in ridden [ˈɹɪdn̩]
ʔ glottal stop, as in uh-oh /ˈʌʔoʊ/, [ˈʌ̆ʔ˦oʊ˨]

Note: The EnPR and print AHD marks are formatted slightly differently. Online, AHD writes both ', though they do not always represent the same phoneme.

Note

The enPR was previously called AHD, but was renamed per 2007-02/Renaming AHD and 2007-02/Renaming AHD (run-off).

See also

References

  • Gimson, A. C. (1980) An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English, 3rd edn. edition, London: Edward Arnold, ISBN 0-7131-6287-2
  • Kenyon, John Samuel (1950) American Pronunciation, 10th edn. edition, Ann Arbor: George Wahr
  • Kenyon, John S.; Thomas A. Knott (1944/1953) A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English, Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, ISBN 0-87779-047-7
  • Wells, J. C. (2000) Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 2nd edn. edition, Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Limited, ISBN 0-582-36468-X

External links

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