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From Proto-Indo-European *kom, *ḱóm (“with, near, by, along”). Cognate with Latin cum (“with”).
- Indicates association or togetherness; co-.
- Indicates completeness or wholeness. In verbs, also indicates perfectivity (a finished action).
Because of its perfective sense, it eventually became used as a marker of the past participle in the West Germanic languages.
- Old English: ġe-
- Old Frisian: ge-, e-
- Old Saxon: ga-, gi-, ge-
- Old Dutch: gi-, ge-
- Old High German: ga-, gi-
- Old Norse: g- (rare, found in e.g. gnógr, glíkr, greiðr)
- Gothic: 𐌲𐌰- (ga-)