TranslingualEdit

EtymologyEdit

New Latin, from Ancient Greek [script?] (a-, not, without)

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. Used to form taxonomic names indicating a lack of some feature that might be expected

Derived termsEdit


EnglishEdit

Usage notesEdit

Different Germanic senses of a- became confused – vaguely “intensive” – and are no longer productive. The Greek sense of “not” (e.g., amoral) remains productive.

“[I]t naturally happened that all these a- prefixes were at length confusedly lumped together in idea, and the resultant a- looked upon as vaguely intensive, rhetorical, euphonic [nice-sounding], or even archaic, and wholly otiose [pointless].” OED.

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle English a- (up, out, away), from Old English ā-, originally *ar-, *or-, from Proto-Germanic *uz- (out-), from Proto-Indo-European *uds- (up, out). Cognate with Old Saxon ā-, German er-.

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. (no longer productive) forming verbs with the sense away, up, on, out
    arise, await
  2. (no longer productive) forming verbs with the sense of intensified action.
    abide, amaze

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. (no longer productive) in, on, at; used to show a state, condition, or manner. [First attested prior to 1150][1]
    apace, afire, aboil
  2. (no longer productive) In, into. [First attested prior to 1150][1]
    asunder
  3. In the direction of, or toward. [First attested prior to 1150][1]
    astern, abeam
  4. (archaic, dialectal) At such a time. [First attested prior to 1150][1]
    Come a-morning we are going hunting.
  5. (archaic, dialectal) In the act or process of. [First attested prior to 1150][1]
    Come morning, we are going a-hunting.
    They's asinging a song. He's aheaded to the store.

Etymology 3Edit

From Middle English variant form of y-, from Old English ġe-, from Proto-Germanic *ga-.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. Obsolete form of y-.[First attested around 1150 to 1350.][1]

Etymology 4Edit

From Anglo-Norman a-, from Old French e-, from Latin ex-.

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. (no longer productive) forming words with the sense of wholly, or utterly out[First attested from around 1150 to 1350.][1]
    abash

Etymology 5Edit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel).

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. Not, without, opposite of.
    • 1948 (revised 1952), Robert Graves, The White Goddess, Faber & Faber 1999, page 7:
      When invited to believe in the Chimaera, the horse-centaurs, or the winged horse Pegasus, all of them straightforward Pelasgian cult-symbols, a philosopher felt bound to reject them as a-zoölogical improbabilities [...].
    • 2012, Faramerz Dabhoiwala, The Origins of Sex, Penguin 2013, page 191:
      If aroused outside the proper outlet of marriage, [female lust] could range out of control, turning its possessor into an a-feminine monster: that is what happened to fallen women.
Usage notesEdit
  • Used with stems that begin with consonants except sometimes h. an- is synonymous and is used in front of words that start with vowels and sometimes h.[2]

Etymology 6Edit

From Middle English, from Middle French a-, from Latin ad (at).

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. (no longer productive) Towards; Used to indicate direction, reduction to, increase to, change into, or motion. [First attested from around 1150 to 1350.][1]
    ascend, aspire, amass, abandon, avenue
Usage notesEdit
  • Used on stems that started with sc, sp, or st, and also used on stems with a French origin.
  • Used in place of ad-.[3]

Etymology 7Edit

From Latin ab (of, off, from, away)

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. (no longer productive) Away from. [First attested from around 1150 to 1350.][1]
    avert, aperient, abridge, assoil[2]
Usage notesEdit
  • Variation of the prefix ab-, only used when the stem starts with the letter p or v. [2]

Etymology 8Edit

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. (no longer productive) Of, from. [First attested prior to 1150.][1]
    anew, afresh[2]

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Brown, Lesley (2003)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Urdang, Laurence (1984)
  3. ^ Lindberg, Christine A. (2007)
  • Lesley Brown (editor), The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 5th edition (Oxford University Press, 2003 [1933], ISBN 978-0-19-860575-7), page 1
  • Christine A. Lindberg (editor), The Oxford College Dictionary, 2nd edition (Spark Publishing, 2007 [2002], ISBN 978-1-4114-0500-4), page 1
  • Laurence Urdang (editor), The Random House College Dictionary (Random House, 1984 [1975], ISBN 0-394-43600-8), page 1
  • a-” in Douglas Harper, Online Etymology Dictionary (2001).

A-PucikwarEdit

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. prefix attached to words relating to the mouth, such as the names of languages

DanishEdit

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. A-; (atomic, nuclear)

Derived termsEdit

SynonymsEdit


FrenchEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old French, from Latin ad-.

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. A prefix forming words, especially verbs, that denote entering a state, making progress toward a goal, or the like.

Etymology 2Edit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel; generalized from the many Latin borrowings using this prefix.

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. a-, non-, -less.

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit


ItalianEdit

Italian Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia it

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin ad-.

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. ad- (indication direction)

Usage notesEdit

The Italian prefix a- often reduplicates the following consonant (syntactic gemination, raddoppiamento fonosintattico). The actual forms usually will be ab- (in abbracciare), ac- (in accorrere), ad- (in addestrare), al- (in allargare) etc.

Etymology 2Edit

Borrowed from Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-).

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. a- (indicating lack or loss)
SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit


LatinEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From ab (away from)

Alternative formsEdit

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. from, away, away from
  2. off
  3. at a distance
  4. completely, thoroughly
  5. absence of
  6. more remote

Usage notesEdit

  • Used before consonants, but not usually c or t.
  • Before a word beginning with f, becomes au-, as in auferre
  • Before a word beginning with p, becomes as-, as in asportare

Etymology 2Edit

From ad (towards)

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. (Before a word beginning with sc or sp) Alternative form of ad-.
    ascendere, āscrībere, aspīrāre, aspicere

NavajoEdit

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. someone's, people's

Usage notesEdit

This prefix is often used as a neutral possessive pronoun to make the citation forms of inalienable nouns: amá (someone's mother), akʼos (someone's neck), ajáád (someone's leg), ajááʼ (someone's ear), akʼéí (someone's kin). The alternative is to use the prefix bi- (his/her/its/their) to make these dictionary forms.

See alsoEdit


Old EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From an earlier form ar-, from Proto-Germanic *uz-. Cognate with Old High German ar-, ir- (German er-).

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

ā-

  1. forming words with the sense from, away, off, out, e.g. āniman

Derived termsEdit


Old FrenchEdit

EtymologyEdit

Latin ad, which was often reduced to a- in compounds.

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. indicating movement towards something
  2. (by extension) indicating a change of state

Old IrishEdit

PrefixEdit

a- (class A infixed pronoun)

  1. him (triggers eclipsis)
  2. it (triggers lenition)

Usage notesEdit

This form merges with the prefixes ro-, no-, di-, to-, fo-, ar-, and imm- to form ra-, na-, da-, da-, fa-, ara-, imma- respectively. It disappears after the particle (not), its only trace being the mutation it causes (eclipsis in the case of the masculine, lenition in the case of the neuter), thus ní cara (does not love) vs. ní chara (does not love it), ní ben (does not strike) vs. ní mben (does not strike him).

Related termsEdit

  • d- (class B & C infixed pronoun)
  • id-, did- (class C infixed pronouns)
  • -i (suffixed pronoun)

Derived termsEdit


Old SaxonEdit

EtymologyEdit

From an earlier form ar-, from Proto-Germanic *uz-. Cognate with Old English a-, Old High German ar-, ir- (German er-).

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

ā-

  1. forming words with the sense from, away, out, off, e.g. āniman

Derived termsEdit


PolishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel), from Proto-Indo-European *n̥- (un-, not), zero-grade form of *ne (not), whence also Polish nie.

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. forming words with the sense of negation, eg. aspołeczny (a- + społeczny)

PortugueseEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Portuguese a-.

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. added to adjective X, forms verbs meaning to make/turn X
    a- + vermelho (red) + -aravermelhar (to redden)
    a- + baixo (low) + -arabaixar (to lower)
  2. added to noun X, forms verbs meaning to cause or make X or to cause something to have X
    a- + pavor (dread) + -arapavorar (to frighten)
    a- + fama (fame) + -arafamar (to make famous)

Etymology 2Edit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-), from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-.

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. a- (not; without)
SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit


Serbo-CroatianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel), from Proto-Indo-European *n̥- (un-, not), zero-grade form of *ne (not), whence also Serbo-Croatian ne.

PrefixEdit

a- (Cyrillic spelling а-)

  1. Prefix prepended to words to denote a negation, deprivation or absence of a property denoted by base word.

SynonymsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • a-” in Hrvatski jezični portal

SpanishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin ad-.

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. A prefix forming words, especially verbs, that denote entering a state, making progress toward a goal, or the like.

See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel; generalized from the many Latin borrowings using this prefix.

PrefixEdit

a-

  1. a-, non-, -less

Derived termsEdit


ZuluEdit

PrefixEdit

a- (subject concord, medial form -wa-)

  1. they (class 6)

PrefixEdit

a- (possessive concord)

  1. of (class 6)

PrefixEdit

a- (relative concord)

  1. Class 6 relative concord.

See alsoEdit

Last modified on 8 March 2014, at 23:30