ζεῦγος

See also: ζεύγος

Ancient GreekEdit

EtymologyEdit

From ζεύγνυμι (zeúgnumi, to join). Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *yewg-.

PronunciationEdit

 

NounEdit

ζεῦγος (zeûgosn (genitive ζεύγεος or ζεύγους); third declension

  1. pair, two things, persons or animals considered as pair
    • 424 BCE, Aristophanes, The Knights 870:
      ζεῦγος πριάμενος ἐμβάδων τουτὶ φορεῖν δίδωμι.
      zeûgos priámenos embádōn toutì phoreîn dídōmi.
      I have bought this pair of shoes, I am giving them to you to wear.
    • 458 BCE, Aeschylus, Agamemnon 40:
      Μενέλαος ἄναξ ἠδ’ Ἀγαμέμνων, ... ὀχυρὸν ζεῦγος Ἀτρειδᾶν
      Menélaos ánax ēd’ Agamémnōn, ... okhuròn zeûgos Atreidân
      King Menelaos, Agamemnon King, ... the mighty yoke-pair of the sons of Atreus.
    • 50 CE – 100 CE, The Gospel of Luke 2:24:
      καὶ τοῦ δοῦναι θυσίαν κατὰ τὸ εἰρημένον ἐν νόμῳ Κυρίου, «Ζεῦγος τρυγόνων ἢ δύο νεοσσούς περιστερῶν».
      kaì toû doûnai thusían katà tò eirēménon en nómōi Kuríou, «Zeûgos trugónōn ḕ dúo neossoús peristerôn».
      and to give a sacrifice according to what's said in the law of the LORD, "A pair of turtledoves or two chicks of pigeons".
  2. yoke (two animals joined together)
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 18.542:
      πολλοὶ δ’ ἀροτῆρες ἐν αὐτῇ ζεύγεα δινεύοντες ἐλάστρεον ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα.
      polloì d’ arotêres en autêi zeúgea dineúontes elástreon éntha kaì éntha.
      • 1924 translation by A.T. Murray
        and ploughers full many therein were wheeling their yokes and driving them this way and that.
    • 50 CE – 100 CE, The Gospel of Luke 14:19:
      Καὶ ἕτερος εἶπε, "Ζεύγη βοῶν ηγόρασα πέντε, και πορεύομαι δοκιμάσαι αὐτά. Ἐρωτῶ σε, ἔχε με παρῃτημένον."
      Kaì héteros eîpe, "Zeúgē boôn ēgórasa pénte, kai poreúomai dokimásai autá. Erōtô se, ékhe me parēitēménon."
      And another said, "I bought five yoke of oxen, and I'm going to test them. Please have me excused."
  3. a vehicle drawn by two or more animals, carriage, chariot
  4. two persons or animals of different sex, in common bond, liaison
    • 430 BCE – 354 BCE, Xenophon, Oeconomicus 7.18:
      τό ζεῦγος τοῦτο συντεθεικέναι ὃ καλεῖται θῆλυ καὶ ἄρρεν
      zeûgos toûto suntetheikénai hò kaleîtai thêlu kaì árrhen
      [the gods] have put together the pair of what we call female and male.
  5. by two, in set of two
    See expressions
    • 46 CE – 120 CE, Plutarch, Moralia 7.II.93e:
      κατά ζεῦγος φιλίας λέγονται... Ἀχιλλεὺς καὶ Πάτροκλος, Ὀρέστης καὶ Πυλάδης, Φιντίας καὶ Δάμων
      katá zeûgos philías légontai... Akhilleùs kaì Pátroklos, Oréstēs kaì Puládēs, Phintías kaì Dámōn
      as pairs of friendship we call... Achilles and Patroclus, Orestes and Pylades, Findias and Damon.
  6. a set of more than two
    • 415 BCE, Euripides, The Trojan Women 924:
      ἔκρινε τρισσὸν ζεῦγος ὅδε τριῶν θεῶν
      ékrine trissòn zeûgos hóde triôn theôn
      he [Paris] judged the triple pair, group of goddesses.
  7. (music) double reed of a wind instrument (e.g. flute)
  8. (Byzantine) plethron, equivalent of a land area ploughed by two oxen in one day
Synonym: πλέθρον (pléthron)

InflectionEdit

Related termsEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Greek: ζεύγος (zévgos)
  • Aramaic: זוגא(zawgā)
  • Classical Syriac: ܙܘܓܐ(zawgāʾ)
    • Old Armenian: զոյգ (zoyg) (see there for further descendants)
  • Hebrew: זוּג(zúg)

Further readingEdit


GreekEdit

NounEdit

ζεῦγος (zeῦgosn (plural ζεύγη)

  1. Polytonic spelling of ζεύγος (zévgos) (before 1982)