πόλις

Ancient GreekEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Hellenic *ptólis, from Proto-Indo-European *tpólHis, from *tpelH-. The early form πτόλις (ptólis) shows metathesis tp > pt because Ancient Greek stop clusters always end in a coronal. Cognate with Sanskrit पुर (pura, city) and Lithuanian pilis (stronghold). Irregular accent on genitive πόλεως (póleōs) is due to a quantitative metathesis from older πόληος (pólēos); genitive plural imitates genitive singular.

PronunciationEdit

 

NounEdit

πόλις (pólisf (genitive πόλεως); third declension

  1. city
    • 750 BCE – 650 BCE, Hesiod, The Shield of Heracles 270–272:
      παρὰ δ’ εὔπυργος πόλις ἀνδρῶν,
      χρῡ́σειαι δέ μιν εἶχον ὑπερθυρίοις ἀραρυῖαι
      ἑπτὰ πύλαι·
      parà d’ eúpurgos pólis andrôn,
      khrū́seiai dé min eîkhon huperthuríois araruîai
      heptà púlai;
      Next, there was a city of men with goodly towers; and seven gates of gold, fitted to the lintels, guarded it.
    1. the Athenian citadel
    2. one's city or country
    3. ( ἐπὶ τῆς πόλεως (ho epì tês póleōs)) city governor, praetor urbanus
  2. a whole country, as dependent on and called after its city: city state
  3. community
    1. the state
    2. the right of citizenship
  4. (πόλιν παίζειν (pólin paízein)) a type of board game

InflectionEdit

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Greek: πόλη (póli)
  • Yevanic: בּוֹלִי(boli)
  • Coptic: ⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ (polis)
  • English: polis (learned)
  • Latin: -polis

Further readingEdit