From Common Circassian *tħamada. Cognate with Adyghe тхьаматэ (tḥāmātă). An adaptation of a foreign word, probably Ottoman Turkish داماد(damat, bridegroom; son-in-law; sovereign's brother-in-law), from Persian داماد(dâmâd, bridegroom; son-in-law; father-in-law; sovereign's brother-in-law; wooer, lover), the ending reshaped under the influence of Kabardian адэ (ādă, father). Sometimes explained as тхьэ (tḥă, god) +‎ адэ (ādă, father), but that is a folk etymology.



тхьэмадэ (tḥămādă)

  1. foreman (of a village)
  2. boss
  3. master (superior person in status or rank)
  4. chairman
  5. father-in-law
  6. (dialectal) wooer, bridegroom
  7. (dated, possibly archaic) religious leader
  8. (possibly dated) husband



(Taking Kabardian as representative of Common Circassian)

Further readingEdit

  • Abaev, V. I. (1975), “Contribution à l'histoire des mots”, in Mélanges linguistiques offerts à Emile Benveniste (in French), Louvain: Peeters, pages 8–10
  • Abajev, V. I. (1979) Istoriko-etimologičeskij slovarʹ osetinskovo jazyka [Historical-Etymological Dictionary of the Ossetian Language] (in Russian), volume III, Moscow, Leningrad: USSR Academy of Sciences, page 227
  • Chirikba, Viacheslav A. (1996) A Dictionary of Common Abkhaz[1], Leiden, page 32
  • Kardanov B. M., editor (1957), “тхьэмадэ”, in Kabardinsko-russkij slovarʹ [Kabardian–Russian Dictionary], Moscow: Gosudarstvennoje izdatelʹstvo inostrannyx i nacionalʹnyx slovarej, page 349b
  • Šagirov, A. K. (1977), Lomtatidze K. V., editor, Etimologičeskij slovarʹ adygskix (čerkesskix) jazykov [Etymological Dictionary of Adyghean (Circassian) Languages] (in Russian), volume II, Moscow: Nauka, pages 82–83