Persian

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Etymology

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From Middle Persian nšstn' (nišastan, sit on), a compound from Proto-Indo-European *ni- (in) / *na- + Middle Persian *šstn' (*šastan-), the latter from Proto-Iranian *had- (to sit, be seated), from Proto-Indo-European *sed- (to sit).[1] Cognate with Russian сидеть (sidetʹ), Armenian նիստ (nist), English nest).

Pronunciation

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Readings
Classical reading? nišastan
Dari reading? nišastan
Iranian reading? nešastan
Tajik reading? nišastan
  • Audio (Iran):(file)

Verb

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Dari نشستن
Iranian Persian
Tajik нишастан

نشستن (nešastan) (present stem نشین (nešin))

  1. to sit down, to sit, to take a seat
    پسر روی صندلی نشسته است. (more literary)
    pesar ru-ye sandali nešaste ast.
    پسر روی صندلی نشسته. (more colloquial)
    pesar ru-ye sandali nešaste.
    The boy is sat on the chair.
  2. to settle, to subside, to be deposited
  3. to be settled, to be suppressed
  4. to reside

Usage notes

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Though this verb is often somewhat erroneously translated as English "to sit", نشستن (nešastan) really refers to the action of sitting down, not the state of being sat. Hence the Persian equivalent for the English "to be sitting" is the present perfect of نشستن (nešastan), i.e. "to have sat down", and the Persian present progressive is equivalent to English "to be sitting down".

Conjugation

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References

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  1. ^ Cheung, Johnny (2007) Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 2), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 126