Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/h₁én

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European edit

Adverb edit

*h₁én[1][2][3]

  1. in

Alternative reconstructions edit

Reconstruction notes edit

Traditionally reconstructed with leading *h₁, but several Greek and Sanskrit compounds, if the analysis is correct, rule this out, for example Ancient Greek ἀκαρός (akarós), a variant of ἔγκαρος (énkaros, brain),[5] or Sanskrit हेमन् (héman, in winter) < *ǵʰeym én.[6][7]

Derived terms edit

  • *h₁en-dró-s (egg, scrotum)[8][9]
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
      • >? Proto-Slavic: *ędro (kernel) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *Hāndrás (unexpected -ā-?)
      • Proto-Indo-Aryan: *Hāṇḍrás[10]
      • Proto-Nuristani: (per Morgenstierne, who reconstructs *ãŕa-)[11]
  • *h₁én-i (< h₁én + *-i (locative suffix))
    • Proto-Germanic: *eni[12] (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Celtic: *eni
      • Celtiberian: eni
      • Gaulish: Eni-gnus (male given name)
      • Primitive Irish: ᚔᚅᚔᚌᚓᚅᚐ (ini-gena, daughter) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Hellenic: *eni
  • *h₁n-í (down) (< "inside")[5]
    • Old Armenian: նի- (ni-)
    • Proto-Celtic: *ni-
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *ní (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Slavic: *nizъ (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Indo-European: *h₁ni-téro-

Descendants edit

  • Old Albanian: ën-
    • Albanian: n-
    • Albanian: m- (before labials)
  • Armenian:
    • Old Armenian: ի (i) / յ- (y-)
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *in (< zero-grade *h₁n̥)[33]
    • Old Prussian: ēn
    • Latvian: iekša (< *en-styā-s)
    • Lithuanian: į, in (dialectal)
    • Proto-Slavic: *vъ(n) (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Celtic: *en (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *en[13]
    • Ancient Greek: ἐν (en)
      Arcadocypriot Greek: ἰν (in)
  • Proto-Italic: *en (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Tocharian:
    • Tocharian A: -an
    • Tocharian B: -ne
  • Proto-Tocharian: *e(n)- (intensifier)[34]

References edit

  1. ^ Schrijver, Peter C. H. (1991) The reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals in Latin (Leiden studies in Indo-European; 2), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 59: “*h₁en-”
  2. 2.0 2.1 Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q., editors (1997), “*h₁en(i)”, in Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, page 290
  3. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2011) Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction, revised and corrected by Michiel de Vaan, 2nd edition, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, page 247: “*h₁en”
  4. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 71: “PIE *en”
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Dunkel, George E. (2014), “Lexikon [Lexicon]”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Partikeln und Pronominalstämme [Lexicon of Indo-European Particles and Pronominal Stems] (Indogermanische Bibliothek. 2. Reihe: Wörterbücher) (in German), volume 2, Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter GmbH Heidelberg, →ISBN, pages 221-236
  6. ^ Wodtko, Dagmar S.; Irslinger, Britta; Schneider, Carolin (2008) Nomina im indogermanischen Lexikon [Nouns in the Indo-European Lexicon] (in German), Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, page 165
  7. 7.0 7.1 Nussbaum, Alan J. (1986) Head and Horn in Indo-European (Untersuchungen zur indogermanischen Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaft. NF / Studies in Indo-European Language and Culture. New Series; 2), Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, →DOI, →ISBN, page 189
  8. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q., editors (1997), “h₁endrós”, in Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, pages 507-508
  9. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “*ę̄drò”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden; Boston: Brill, →ISBN, →ISSN, page 157
  10. ^ Mayrhofer, Manfred (1992), “*āṇḍá-”, in Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen [Etymological Dictionary of Old Indo-Aryan]‎[2] (in German), volume 1, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, page 162
  11. ^ Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985), “āṇḍá”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press
  12. ^ Orel, Vladimir (2003) A Handbook of Germanic Etymology[3], Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 84
  13. 13.0 13.1 Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ἔν”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 419
  14. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013), “ek*”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, pages 78: “*h₁en-h₃kʷ-o-”
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “in”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 300
  16. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*enekʷo-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 115
  17. ^ Zair, Nicholas (2012) The reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals in Celtic, Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 261
  18. ^ Ziegler, Sabine (1994), Alfred Bammesberger and Günter Neumann, editors, Die Sprache der altirischen Ogam-Inschriften [The language of the Old Irish Ogham inscriptions] (Historische Sprachforschung; Ergänzungsheft 36) (in German), Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, →ISBN, page 103
  19. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ἐνῑπή”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  20. ^ Wodtko, Dagmar S.; Irslinger, Britta; Schneider, Carolin (2008), “*h₃ekʷ-”, in Nomina im indogermanischen Lexikon [Nouns in the Indo-European Lexicon] (in German), Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, page 370
  21. ^ Frisk, Hjalmar (1960), “ἐνῶπα”, in Griechisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), volume 1, Heidelberg: Carl Winter, pages 526-27
  22. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ἐνῶπα”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  23. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “εἰς”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  24. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ἐντός”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  25. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “*ę̄trò”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden; Boston: Brill, →ISBN, →ISSN, page 158
  26. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959), “1. en”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 1, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 312
    Pokorny, Julius (1959), “2. ner-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 2, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 765
  27. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*nurþera-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  28. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*niþera-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  29. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ἀκαρός”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 49-50
  30. ^ Václav Blažek (2019), “Agamemnon”, in Georgios K. Giannakis, Christoforos Charalambakis, Franco Montanari and Antonios Rengakos, editors, Studies in Greek Lexicography (Trends in Classics – Supplementary Volumes; 72), De Gruyter, →DOI, →ISBN, §3.1.1, page 123: “ἄκαρος ‘brain’ [Etymologicum Magnum 45.13] <*H₁n̥-k̂r̥H₂o- vs. ἔγκαρος ‘brain’ [Lycophron {320–280 BCE}, Alexandra 1104; Alcaeus Messenius {197 BCE}] <*H₁en-k̂r̥H₂o-
  31. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden; Boston: Brill, →ISBN, →ISSN, page 387
  32. ^ Mayrhofer, Manfred (1992) Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen [Etymological Dictionary of Old Indo-Aryan]‎[4] (in German), volume 1, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, pages 166-67
  33. ^ Derksen, Rick (2015) Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 196–197
  34. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013), “e(n)-”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, pages 87-88: “PIE *h₁en”

Further reading edit