Sanskrit edit

 
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Etymology edit

Of unclear origin.

Traditionally derived from the root कष् (kaṣ, to rub, scrape); however, this is semantically doubtful.

Turner takes the variety of suffixes found in the word's descendants as evidence of a substrate, probably Proto-Dravidian *kac-, borrowing; compare Telugu కసు (kasu, raw, unripe). Mayrhofer, on the other hand, takes it as evidence of Indo-European origin (particularly with the word's Vedic presence), and gives काषण (kāṣaṇa, unripe) as the true Dravidian borrowing and cognate of the above Telugu term.

Whether the "astringent" and "red" meanings are etymologically connected is uncertain.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

कषाय (kaṣāya)

  1. astringent
  2. fragrant
  3. red, dull red, yellowish red

Declension edit

Masculine a-stem declension of कषाय (kaṣāya)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative कषायः
kaṣāyaḥ
कषायौ / कषाया¹
kaṣāyau / kaṣāyā¹
कषायाः / कषायासः¹
kaṣāyāḥ / kaṣāyāsaḥ¹
Vocative कषाय
kaṣāya
कषायौ / कषाया¹
kaṣāyau / kaṣāyā¹
कषायाः / कषायासः¹
kaṣāyāḥ / kaṣāyāsaḥ¹
Accusative कषायम्
kaṣāyam
कषायौ / कषाया¹
kaṣāyau / kaṣāyā¹
कषायान्
kaṣāyān
Instrumental कषायेण
kaṣāyeṇa
कषायाभ्याम्
kaṣāyābhyām
कषायैः / कषायेभिः¹
kaṣāyaiḥ / kaṣāyebhiḥ¹
Dative कषायाय
kaṣāyāya
कषायाभ्याम्
kaṣāyābhyām
कषायेभ्यः
kaṣāyebhyaḥ
Ablative कषायात्
kaṣāyāt
कषायाभ्याम्
kaṣāyābhyām
कषायेभ्यः
kaṣāyebhyaḥ
Genitive कषायस्य
kaṣāyasya
कषाययोः
kaṣāyayoḥ
कषायाणाम्
kaṣāyāṇām
Locative कषाये
kaṣāye
कषाययोः
kaṣāyayoḥ
कषायेषु
kaṣāyeṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic
Feminine ā-stem declension of कषया (kaṣayā)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative कषया
kaṣayā
कषये
kaṣaye
कषयाः
kaṣayāḥ
Vocative कषये
kaṣaye
कषये
kaṣaye
कषयाः
kaṣayāḥ
Accusative कषयाम्
kaṣayām
कषये
kaṣaye
कषयाः
kaṣayāḥ
Instrumental कषयया / कषया¹
kaṣayayā / kaṣayā¹
कषयाभ्याम्
kaṣayābhyām
कषयाभिः
kaṣayābhiḥ
Dative कषयायै
kaṣayāyai
कषयाभ्याम्
kaṣayābhyām
कषयाभ्यः
kaṣayābhyaḥ
Ablative कषयायाः / कषयायै²
kaṣayāyāḥ / kaṣayāyai²
कषयाभ्याम्
kaṣayābhyām
कषयाभ्यः
kaṣayābhyaḥ
Genitive कषयायाः / कषयायै²
kaṣayāyāḥ / kaṣayāyai²
कषययोः
kaṣayayoḥ
कषयाणाम्
kaṣayāṇām
Locative कषयायाम्
kaṣayāyām
कषययोः
kaṣayayoḥ
कषयासु
kaṣayāsu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic
  • ²Brāhmaṇas
Neuter a-stem declension of कषाय (kaṣāya)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative कषायम्
kaṣāyam
कषाये
kaṣāye
कषायाणि / कषाया¹
kaṣāyāṇi / kaṣāyā¹
Vocative कषाय
kaṣāya
कषाये
kaṣāye
कषायाणि / कषाया¹
kaṣāyāṇi / kaṣāyā¹
Accusative कषायम्
kaṣāyam
कषाये
kaṣāye
कषायाणि / कषाया¹
kaṣāyāṇi / kaṣāyā¹
Instrumental कषायेण
kaṣāyeṇa
कषायाभ्याम्
kaṣāyābhyām
कषायैः / कषायेभिः¹
kaṣāyaiḥ / kaṣāyebhiḥ¹
Dative कषायाय
kaṣāyāya
कषायाभ्याम्
kaṣāyābhyām
कषायेभ्यः
kaṣāyebhyaḥ
Ablative कषायात्
kaṣāyāt
कषायाभ्याम्
kaṣāyābhyām
कषायेभ्यः
kaṣāyebhyaḥ
Genitive कषायस्य
kaṣāyasya
कषाययोः
kaṣāyayoḥ
कषायाणाम्
kaṣāyāṇām
Locative कषाये
kaṣāye
कषाययोः
kaṣāyayoḥ
कषायेषु
kaṣāyeṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic

Noun edit

कषाय (kaṣāya) stemm

  1. an astringent extract of juice
  2. decoction, infusion
  3. dirt, filth
  4. stain, impurity
  5. dullness, stupidity
  6. a dull or yellowish red garment or robe in Buddhism, a kashaya

Declension edit

Masculine a-stem declension of कषाय (kaṣāya)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative कषायः
kaṣāyaḥ
कषायौ / कषाया¹
kaṣāyau / kaṣāyā¹
कषायाः / कषायासः¹
kaṣāyāḥ / kaṣāyāsaḥ¹
Vocative कषाय
kaṣāya
कषायौ / कषाया¹
kaṣāyau / kaṣāyā¹
कषायाः / कषायासः¹
kaṣāyāḥ / kaṣāyāsaḥ¹
Accusative कषायम्
kaṣāyam
कषायौ / कषाया¹
kaṣāyau / kaṣāyā¹
कषायान्
kaṣāyān
Instrumental कषायेण
kaṣāyeṇa
कषायाभ्याम्
kaṣāyābhyām
कषायैः / कषायेभिः¹
kaṣāyaiḥ / kaṣāyebhiḥ¹
Dative कषायाय
kaṣāyāya
कषायाभ्याम्
kaṣāyābhyām
कषायेभ्यः
kaṣāyebhyaḥ
Ablative कषायात्
kaṣāyāt
कषायाभ्याम्
kaṣāyābhyām
कषायेभ्यः
kaṣāyebhyaḥ
Genitive कषायस्य
kaṣāyasya
कषाययोः
kaṣāyayoḥ
कषायाणाम्
kaṣāyāṇām
Locative कषाये
kaṣāye
कषाययोः
kaṣāyayoḥ
कषायेषु
kaṣāyeṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic

References edit

  • Monier Williams (1899) “कषाय”, in A Sanskrit–English Dictionary, [], new edition, Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, →OCLC, page 0265/3.
  • Arthur Anthony Macdonell (1893) “कषाय”, in A practical Sanskrit dictionary with transliteration, accentuation, and etymological analysis throughout, London: Oxford University Press
  • Otto Böhtlingk, Richard Schmidt (1879-1928) “कषाय”, in Walter Slaje, Jürgen Hanneder, Paul Molitor, Jörg Ritter, editors, Nachtragswörterbuch des Sanskrit [Dictionary of Sanskrit with supplements] (in German), Halle-Wittenberg: Martin-Luther-Universität, published 2016
  • Mayrhofer, Manfred (1992) Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen [Etymological Dictionary of Old Indo-Aryan]‎[1] (in German), volume 1, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, page 332
  • Mayrhofer, Manfred (1956) Kurzgefasstes Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindischen [A Concise Etymological Sanskrit Dictionary] (in German), volume 1, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, pages 190-1
  • Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985) “kaṣāya”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press