तुम

GarhwaliEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Ashokan Prakrit 𑀢𑀼𑀨𑁂 (tuphe), from Sanskrit युष्मान् (yuṣmān). Cognates include Hindi तुम (tum) and Gujarati તમે (tame).

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

तुम (tum)

  1. ye, you (plural)

ReferencesEdit

  • Anoop Chandra Chandola (1966) A Synthatic Sketch of Garhwali, University of Chicago press (PhD thesis), page 43

HindiEdit

EtymologyEdit

Inherited from Sauraseni Apabhramsa तुम्हि, from Sauraseni Prakrit 𑀢𑀼𑀫𑁆𑀳𑁂 (tumhe), from Sanskrit युष्मान् (yuṣmān, you, acc. pl.) adopting the initial sounds of त्वम् (tvám, you, nom. sg.).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

  • (Delhi Hindi) IPA(key): /t̪ʊm/, [t̪ʊ̃m]
  • (file)

PronounEdit

तुम (tum) (Urdu spelling تم‎)

  1. you, ye (mid-level formality and grammatically plural)

Usage notesEdit

  • तुम (tum) is the mid level formal way of expressing "you" in Hindi and is used when addressing those of equal social status or those one has a close enough relationship with to justify the reduced formality. Because the less formal forms could offend others, आप (āp) is the safest way to express "you" unless there is reason to be less formal.
  • Because तुम (tum) is grammatically plural (adjectives and verbs etc affected by it take their plural forms) even when there is only one person being referred to, the term तुम लोग (tum log) (literally: you people) can be used to specify that more than one person is being referred to.

DeclensionEdit

Declension of तुम
direct तुम (tum)
indirect तुम (tum)
ergative तुमने (tumne)
genitive तुम्हारा (tumhārā)
dative तुम्हें (tumhẽ) , तुमको (tumko)

See alsoEdit

  • आप (āp) (highest formality, grammatically plural)
  • तू () (least formality, grammatically singular)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Oberlies, Thomas (2005) A Historical Grammar of Hindi, Grazer Vergleichende Arbeiten, →ISBN, page 20
  2. ^ Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985), “yuṣmad”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press