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HindiEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Sauraseni Prakrit 𑀅𑀧𑁆𑀧𑀸 (appā), among other forms, from Sanskrit आत्मन् (ātmán, soul, spirit; self), from Proto-Indo-Aryan *HaHtmā́, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *HaHtmā́, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eh₁tmṓ. Cognate with Punjabi ਆਪ (āp), Gujarati આપ (āpa), Marathi आप (āp, self), Bengali আপ (ap), আপনি (apni), Assamese আপুনি (apuni), আপোন (apün, own, ownself, relative), Kamkata-viri āmu (self), Old High German ātum (breath).

The use as a second-person polite personal pronoun probably developed from its use deferentially (in the same way as "Your Honor").

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

आप (āp) (Urdu spelling آپ‎)

  1. you (formal, polite and grammatically plural)
    क्या आपको मेरी मदद की ज़रूरत है?
    kyā āpko merī madad kī zarūrat hai?
    Do you need my help?
    आपका दिन कैसा था पिताजी?āpkā din kaisā thā pitājī?How was your day, father?
  2. (in some phrases, now obsolete) self
    अपने आपapne āponeself
    अपनाapnāone's own

Usage notesEdit

  • आप (āp) is the most formal way of expressing "you" in Hindi and is used when addressing elders or those higher in social status. Because less formal forms could offend others, आप (āp) is the safest way to express "you" unless there is reason to be less formal.
  • Because आप (āp) is grammatically plural (adjectives and verbs etc affected by it take their plural forms) even when there is only one person being referred to, the term आप लोग (āp log) (literally: you people) can be used to specify that more than one person is being referred to because of T-V distinction.

DeclensionEdit

Declension of आप
direct आप (āp)
indirect आप (āp)
ergative आपने (āpne)
genitive आपका (āpkā)
dative आपको (āpko)

See alsoEdit

See alsoEdit

  • तुम (tum) (mid level formality, grammatically plural)
  • तू () (complete lack of human formality, grammatically singular)

ReferencesEdit

  • McGregor, Ronald Stuart (1993), “आप”, in The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, London: Oxford University Press
  • Platts, John T. (1884), “आप”, in A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English, London: W. H. Allen & co.

Old MarathiEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Sanskrit आपः (āpaḥ).

NounEdit

आप (āpam (Modi 𑘁𑘢)

  1. water

ReferencesEdit

  • Shankar Gopal Tulpule and Anne Feldhau (1999), “आप”, in A Dictionary of Old Marathi, Mumbai: Popular Prakashan

PaliEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

आप ?

  1. water