하오체

KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From 하오 (hao), semi-formal imperative of 하다 (hada, “to do”) + (, che, “style”).

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?haoche
Revised Romanization (translit.)?haoche
McCune–Reischauer?haoch'e
Yale Romanization?haochey

NounEdit

하오체 (haoche)

  1. (linguistics) The semi-formal speech level in Korean.
    '다음 방정식 구하시오' 하오체 예시입니다.
    da'eum bangjeongsig-ui hae-reul guhasio neun haoche-ui yesi-imnida.
    da-eum bangjeongsigui haereul guhasio ["Please find the solution to this equation"] is an example of haoche.

Usage notesEdit

하오체 is used to acknowledge respect for the addressee while also emphasizing one's own status. For this reason, it is also called the "formal-lateral" speech level in English.

In the modern Seoul standard, 하오체 is rarely used in speech by those of middle age and below, having been replaced by 해요체 (haeyoche). However, it is very common in the imperative form in official written language, such as examination questions or safety guidelines, as well as in historical fiction.

In the modern North Korean standard, 하오체 is the conventional formal polite speech level for adult men even in normal conversation, whereas women tend to use the relatively more deferential 해요체.

In the Gyeongsang and southern Jeolla dialects of South Korea and in the Hamgyong dialect of North Korea, 하오체 is still widely used by both genders, especially by middle-aged and older speakers whose speech is less influenced by the standard language.

See alsoEdit

(Other speech levels)