Cognate with Korean 하다 (hada, “to be many (obsolete)”).
- to be many
- 만ᄒᆞ다 (manhawda)
- (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ha̠da̠]
- Phonetic hangul: [하다]
|Revised Romanization (translit.)?||hada|
Of native Korean origin, from Middle Korean ᄒᆞ다〮 (Yale: hò-tá), from Old Korean 爲 (*HO(Y)-). Cognate with Jeju ᄒᆞ다 (hawda).
It is believed that at an ancient stage, the stem of ᄒᆞ다〮 (Yale: hò-tá) was actually *ᄒᆡ (Yale: *hoy-), as still evidenced by the irregular infinitive form 하여 (hayeo) (Vovin 2010, p. 27).
하다 • (hada) (infinitive 해 or 하여, sequential 하니)
- (transitive) to do; used to vaguely refer to almost any action, in particular:
- 했어? — 아니, 못 했어. ― Haess-eo? - Ani, mot haess-eo. ― Did you do it? — No, I couldn't.
- 느리게 하면 되나? ― Neurige hamyeon doena? ― Will it work if I do it slowly?
- 제가 할 수 있어요. ― Je-ga hal su isseo-yo. ― I can do it.
- to prepare, to make (food, clothes, etc.)
- to make a certain facial expression
- (often polite) to have, to eat
- to wear, to put on (accessories such as hats or jewelry)
- to run (an enterprise, etc.)
- to be, to take the responsibility of... (a charge, a role)
- to get (a result)
- (of prices, whether literal or figuratively) to cost, to be worth (a certain price)
- (usually with 어떻게 (“how”)) to treat, to deal with
- (euphemistic) to acquire (an object, by purchase or other arrangement)
- to say (that):
- Synonym: (Gyeongsang dialect) 카다 (kada)
- (after an indirect quotation) to say (that)
- (after a direct quotation, colloquial, especially as 하고) to be like; to say (that)
- Synonym: 이러다 (ireoda)
- (transitive) to call, to name
- (after an ideophone or onomatopoeia) to go; make the sound of the onomatopoeia; to act according to the ideophone
- (after an interrogative suffix) to wonder, to ponder
- (transitive, with 으로 (“with”)) to make, to render:
- (with a noun) to decide on; to make; to use (as)
- (with a clause nominalized with 기 or 것) to decide
- (with a direction) to cause to face
- (intransitive, with indirect object, with adverb) to treat (in a certain way)
- Synonym: 대(對)하다 (daehada)
- (auxiliary) See 어하다 (-eohada, “to consider (as); to find (as)”).
- Used as a light verb to allow nouns and noun-like forms to function as active verbs. The verb itself has little to no real meaning. The noun functions as a direct object of the verb, being able to take particles such as the accusative case marker 을 or the topic marker 은.
- Used as a light verb to allow nouns and noun-like forms to function as adjectives. The verb itself has little to no real meaning. The noun can be separated by the topic marker 은.
- After certain roots, fully suffixed to form an inseparable verb or adjective. Such roots tend to be single-character Sino-Korean morphemes.
- Used with no real meaning after a verb or adjective nominalized with 기 and followed by a particle.
- Used as the neutral verbal element after suffixes expressing intent.
- Used as the neutral verbal element for constructions with repeated suffixes.
- (colloquial) and all; used after 고 to emphasize a suffix expressing causation.
- Synonym: 그러다 (geureoda)
- Various idiomatic usages:
- See 게 하다 (-ge hada, “to make; (forms the causative)”).
- See 고는 하다 (-goneun hada, “[one] would [customarily]...”).
- See 다 하면 (-da hamyeon, “if... always”).
- See 어야 하다 (-eoya hada, “must; should; have to”).
- See 었으면 하다 (-eosseumyeon hada, “to wish; to hope”).
- See 으로 하여 (-euro hayeo, “because of; via”).
- See 쯤 해서 (-jjeum haeseo, “around the time...”).
- See 하고 (-hago, “and, with”).
- See 하면 (hamyeon, “as for”).
- See 할 것 없다 (hal geot eopda, “to have no need to distinguish”).
("to say", for direct quotes):
- Using 하고 (hago) is more colloquial and has a nuance of more intimate or faithful quoting than using 이라고 (-irago). For example, speakers use 하고 (hago) when imitating the actual way something was said (e.g. someone's accent, prosody, etc.), and 이라고 (-irago) when quoting written material.
- As Korean verbs and adjectives are a fully closed class, all newly borrowed or coined verbs and adjectives must be formed by 하다 (hada).
- In compound verbs or adjectives, the stem can be contracted. This often has a literary nuance.
- After obstruent-final stems, the entire stem 하 (ha-) is dropped.
- After sonorant-final stems, only the vowel is dropped and the initial ㅎ (h) merges with the following suffix, so that suffixes beginning with the consonants ㄱ (g), ㄷ (d), and ㅈ (j) are aspirated to begin with ㅋ (k), ㅌ (t), and ㅊ (ch):
- For some of the adverbs formed by such a contraction of conjugated forms, the presumed original verb or adjective is no longer widely used, if at all. For example, the adverb 기어(期於)코 (gieoko, “no matter what; in the end”) has no corresponding adjective *기어(期於)하다 (*gieohada).
- Some of these contracted forms have undergone semantic shifts and are no longer fully equivalent to the uncontracted forms. For example, 무심(無心)코 (musimko, “thoughtlessly”) cannot be replaced by 무심(無心)하고 (musim-hago, “[one] is careless, and...”).
- Contraction is more common for connective suffixes and less common for sentence-final ones, especially informal ones.
- Contraction is more common in Gyeongsang dialect than in Standard Seoul Korean.
(contraction in indirect quotes)
- In indirect quotes, the entire stem 하 (ha-) is commonly dropped.
- In less formal language, the infinitive 하여 (hayeo) is always contracted to 해 (hae).
- Because the intimate style is never formal by definition, 하여 (hayeo) can never replace 해 (hae) in such contexts.
|Noun and determiner forms|
|Past-tense verbal nouns||했음, 하였음
|Sentence-final forms with honorific|
|Connective forms with honorific|
|Noun and determiner forms with honorific|
|Past-tense verbal nouns||하셨음
First attested in the Hunminjeong'eum haerye (訓民正音解例 / 훈민정음해례), 1446, as Middle Korean 하다 (Yale: hata).
하다 • (hada) (infinitive 하, sequential 하니)
- ^ 안경화 (1995) 한국어 인용구문의 연구 [A study of Korean quotative constructions], Seoul National University (PhD)
Suspected to have same root with Middle Korean 크〮다〮 (khú-tá, “to be big”).
- 한〮비〮 (hánpí, “heavy rain”)