See also: Appendix:Variations of "es"
- (Valencia) -és
- -ese; Used to form an adjective with the meaning of “pertinent thereto”.
- -ese; Used to form a noun with the meaning of “an inhabitant thereof”.
-ès m (uncountable)
- -ese; Used to form a proper noun with the meaning of “the language used by the inhabitants thereof”.
- Unlike English, where the capitalization of the proper noun is retained when a suffix is added, in Catalan, when this suffix is used with a place name, the capitalization is dropped, even when forming a language name that is itself a proper noun. Hence Irlanda (“Ireland”) + -ès yields irlandès not *Irlandès.