Etymology 1Edit

Borrowed from Old Church Slavonic -еньнъ (-enĭnŭ), from енъ (enŭ) + ьнъ (ĭnŭ). Originally used to form adjectives from past passive participles in Old Church Slavonic, later reinterpreted as a past passive participle suffix within the Russian literary language. Compare the native past participle suffix -еный (-enyj), which developed into an adjective suffix. For the same development compare -ячий (-jačij).

Alternative formsEdit



-енный (-ennyj)

  1. used to form past passive participles from verbs in -ить (-itʹ) and -еть (-etʹ), which are frequently lexicalized into adjectives
    просла́вить (proslávitʹ, to celebrate) + ‎-енный (-ennyj) → ‎просла́вленный (proslávlennyj, celebrated)
Usage notesEdit
  • As a means of forming past passive participles, the suffix as written occurs only unstressed; when stressed, it assumes the form -ённый (-jónnyj). Generally, this suffix occurs with accent-a verbs (stem-stressed verbs ending in unstressed -ить (-itʹ) and -еть (-etʹ)) and accent-c verbs (ending-stressed verbs in -и́ть (-ítʹ) and -е́ть (-étʹ), where the present and synthetic future tense, except for the first person singular, are stem-stressed, for example води́ть (vodítʹ) with present tense вожу́ (vožú), во́дишь (vódišʹ), во́дит (vódit), etc.). It does not normally occur with accent-b verbs (ending-stressed verbs where the entire present and synthetic future tense is ending-stressed, for example вини́ть (vinítʹ) with present tense виню́ (vinjú), вини́шь (viníšʹ), вини́т (vinít), etc.), which instead use -ённый (-jónnyj). However, there are exceptions in both directions, e.g. accent-c дели́ть (delítʹ) (present tense делю́ (deljú), де́лишь (délišʹ)) with past passive participle делённый (deljónnyj) and accent-b крои́ть (kroítʹ) (present tense крою́ (krojú), крои́шь (kroíšʹ)) with past passive participle кро́енный (krójennyj).
  • This suffix triggers iotation (unlike the homophonous adjective-forming suffix below).
Related termsEdit
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit


  • -енный: IPA(key): [ʲɪn(ː)ɨj]
  • -е́нный: IPA(key): [ˈʲenːɨj]


-енный or -е́нный (-ennyj or -énnyj)

  1. used to form adjectives from nouns, with the meaning "having the property of X"
    простра́нство (prostránstvo, space) + ‎-енный (-ennyj) → ‎простра́нственный (prostránstvennyj, spatial)
    целому́дрие (celomúdrije, chastity) + ‎-енный (-ennyj) → ‎целому́дренный (celomúdrennyj, chaste)
    ма́лый (mályj, small) + ‎число́ (čisló, number) + ‎-енный (-ennyj) → ‎малочи́сленный (maločíslennyj, scanty, few)
  2. used to form adjectives from other adjectives, with the colloquial meaning "very X"
    высо́кий (vysókij, high, tall) + ‎-е́нный (-énnyj) → ‎высоче́нный (vysočénnyj, very high, very tall (colloquial))
    здоро́вый (zdoróvyj, healthy; strong; big) + ‎-е́нный (-énnyj) → ‎здорове́нный (zdorovénnyj, very strong, very muscular; huge, enormous (colloquial))
Usage notesEdit
  • This suffix triggers the Slavic first palatalization of velars, but does not trigger iotation (unlike the homophonous past-participle-forming suffix above).
  • In the colloquial meaning "very X", the suffix is normally stressed, while in the meaning "having the property of X" it is normally unstressed.
Derived termsEdit