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RussianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-ивать (-ivatʹ)

  1. Used to form imperfective verbs from prefixed perfective verbs in -ить (-itʹ) and sometimes -еть (-etʹ), with iotation of the final consonant.
    оцени́ть pf (ocenítʹ) + ‎-ивать (-ivatʹ) → ‎оце́нивать impf (océnivatʹ)
    сноси́ть pf (snosítʹ) + ‎-ивать (-ivatʹ) → ‎сна́шивать impf (snášivatʹ)
    вы́здороветь pf (výzdorovetʹ) + ‎-ивать (-ivatʹ) → ‎выздора́вливать impf (vyzdorávlivatʹ)
  2. Used as a spelling variant in place of -ывать (-yvatʹ) to form imperfective verbs from prefixed perfective verbs in -ать (-atʹ), -нуть (-nutʹ) and sometimes -ить (-itʹ) with root-final velars (к г х) and hushing consonants (ш ж ч щ), without iotation of the final consonant.
    вмеша́ться pf (vmešátʹsja) + ‎-ивать (-ivatʹ) → ‎вме́шиваться impf (vméšivatʹsja)
    вы́толкнуть pf (výtolknutʹ) + ‎-ивать (-ivatʹ) → ‎выта́лкивать impf (vytálkivatʹ)
    подскочи́ть pf (podskočítʹ) + ‎-ивать (-ivatʹ) → ‎подска́кивать impf (podskákivatʹ)
  3. Used to form frequentative verbs from non-prefixed verbs in -ить (-itʹ) and sometimes -еть (-etʹ), with iotation of the final consonant.
    суди́ть impf (sudítʹ, to judge) + ‎-ивать (-ivatʹ) → ‎су́живать impf (súživatʹ, to judge repeatedly)
  4. Used as a spelling variant in place of -ывать (-yvatʹ) to form frequentative verbs from non-prefixed verbs in -ать (-atʹ), -нуть (-nutʹ) and sometimes -ить (-itʹ) with root-final velars (к г х) and hushing consonants (ш ж ч щ), without iotation of the final consonant.

ConjugationEdit

Usage notesEdit

The frequentative and imperfectivizing suffixes are etymologically the same. The spelling-variant suffixes can be distinguished from the other suffixes by their iotation behavior, by the restriction of the second type to certain root-final consonants, and by the types of verbs they usually affect. Note also that in the spelling-variant type, an underlying root consonant that has been modified or deleted may reappear, as in подска́кивать impf (podskákivatʹ), based on the root подскок-, which appears in iotated form in подскочи́ть pf (podskočítʹ). For all suffixes, the stress is drawn onto the syllable before the prefix, and an о in that syllable usually changes into а.

Derived termsEdit


See alsoEdit

  • -я́ть (-játʹ) (another way to form imperfective verbs from prefixed perfective verbs, usually in -ить (-itʹ), and with iotation)
  • -а́ть (-átʹ) (spelling variant of the above after hushing consonants (ш ж ч щ), which frequently result from iotation)
  • -а́ть (-átʹ) (a different, homophonous suffix used to form imperfective verbs from prefixed perfective verbs of certain classes, without iotation)
  • -ва́ть (-vátʹ) (a suffix used to form imperfective verbs from perfective verbs with vowel-final roots, as well as class-1 verbs in -еть (-etʹ))