GeorgianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

SuffixEdit

-ა (-a)

  1. Suffixed to nouns and adjectives for the purpose of euphony. Separates the final consonant of a suffixed term from the initial consonant of the next word. It may also split a postposition-attached word (see -ა- (-a-)).
    ჩემი ეს გზავნილი ეძღვნება კაცს თუ ქალს
    čemi es gzavnili eʒɣvneba ḳacsa tu kals
    My message is to the man and the woman
Usage notesEdit
  • It can be suffixed to a noun in the dative, instrumental, or genitive case.
  • In sentences where a list of two or more nouns are connected in series, with the last noun preceded by the conjunction და (da, and), this suffix is appended to the noun before და (da, and). For example, მან თქვა რომ არ უღალატებდა სამშობლოს ენასა და სარწმუნოებას (he said that he would never betray his country, language and faith).

Etymology 2Edit

Contraction of არის (aris, is).

SuffixEdit

-ა (-a)

  1. is
    ის ექიმიis ekimiaShe/he is a doctor
    ლამაზიlamaziaShe/he/it is beautiful

Etymology 3Edit

SuffixEdit

-ა (-a)

  1. Forms verbal nouns from verbs.

Etymology 4Edit

Both senses are from Proto-Kartvelian *-a.

SuffixEdit

-ა (-a)

  1. Suffixed to nouns to form privative adjectives
    კუდი (ḳudi, tail) + ‎-ა (-a) → ‎კუდა (ḳuda, tailless, short-tailed)
    ფეხი (pexi, leg) + ‎-ა (-a) → ‎ფეხა (pexa, lame)
  2. Expresses having something
    ცხვირი (cxviri, nose) + ‎-ა (-a) → ‎ცხვირა (cxvira, (big-)nosed)
    ცალი (cali, one) + ‎თვალი (tvali, eye) + ‎-ა (-a) → ‎ცალთვალა (caltvala, one-eyed)
Derived termsEdit
Category Georgian terms suffixed with -ა (privative; ironic) not found

ReferencesEdit

  • Ǯorbenaʒe, B.; Ḳobaiʒe, M.; Beriʒe, M. (1988), “-ა⁷”, in Kartuli enis morpemebisa da modaluri elemenṭebis leksiḳoni [Dictionary of morphemes and modal elements in Georgian] (in Georgian), Tbilisi: Academy Press, page 14

Etymology 5Edit

Developed from -ად (-ad).

SuffixEdit

-ა (-a)

  1. Forms adverbs.
    ჩქარი (čkari, quick) + ‎-ა (-a) → ‎ჩქარა (čkara, quickly)
    ნელი (neli, slow) + ‎-ა (-a) → ‎ნელა (nela, slowly)
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Fähnrich, Heinz (2012) Die georgische Sprache (Handbook of Oriental Studies; VIII.22) (in German), Leiden and Boston: Brill, page 597
  • Ǯorbenaʒe, B.; Ḳobaiʒe, M.; Beriʒe, M. (1988), “-ა⁹”, in Kartuli enis morpemebisa da modaluri elemenṭebis leksiḳoni [Dictionary of morphemes and modal elements in Georgian] (in Georgian), Tbilisi: Academy Press, page 15
  • Vogt, Hans (1971) Grammaire de la langue géorgienne[1] (in French), Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, page 65

LazEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Kartvelian *-a.

SuffixEdit

-ა (-a) (Latin spelling -a)

  1. Suffixed to verbs to form nouns
    წკუნ- (ǯǩun-, to ache, hurt) + ‎-ა (-a) → ‎წკუნა (ǯǩuna, pain)
    გნ- (gn-, to understand) + ‎-ა (-a) → ‎გაგნა (gagna, understanding, perception)
    მწოლ- (mǯol-, to soot) + ‎-ა (-a) → ‎მწოლა (mǯola, soot)
    ტრაღოდ- (ťrağod-, to sing) + ‎-ა (-a) → ‎ტრაღოდა (ťrağoda, song)
Derived termsEdit
Category Laz terms suffixed with -ა (verbal) not found

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Kartvelian *-a.

SuffixEdit

-ა (-a) (Latin spelling -a)

  1. Suffixed to nouns to form privative adjectives
    ყუჯი (quci, ear) + ‎-ა (-a) → ‎ყუჯა (quca, deaf)
Derived termsEdit
Category Laz terms suffixed with -ა (privative) not found

MingrelianEdit

EtymologyEdit

Both senses are from Proto-Kartvelian *-a.

SuffixEdit

-ა (-a)

  1. Suffixed to nouns to form privative adjectives
    ჸუჯი (ʾuǯi, ear) + ‎-ა (-a) → ‎ჸუჯა (ʾuǯa, deaf)
  2. Expresses having something
    ჸუჯი (ʾuǯi, ear) + ‎-ა (-a) → ‎ჸუჯა (ʾuǯa, big-eared)

Derived termsEdit