Contents

EnglishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From the homographic case endings of the nominative, accusative, and vocative forms of numerous Latin neuter second declension nouns.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. plural of -um
  2. plural of -on
Usage notesEdit
  • Whereas the regular pluralization in English involves adding -s or -es, English words derived from a Latin/Greek where the Latin/Greek would pluralize from -on (Greek) or -um (Latin) to -a do not always do so. Usage of -a instead of -s differs between words: sometimes the two are interchangeable (e.g. memorandums/memoranda, polyhedrons/polyhedra), sometimes one is far more common than the other (e.g. neurons over neura, automata over automatons), and sometimes one is completely absent from usage (e.g. bacteria over bacteriums, dendrons over dendra)
Derived termsEdit
See alsoEdit
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Possibly due to the propensity in some non-rhotic dialects to pronounce words ending in -er as if they ended in an -a.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. (Northern England) Same as -er in Standard English.
    me fatha was a corka burna doon the shipyard — “My father was a corker burner at the shipyard.”
  2. (Black English and slang) Used to replace -er in nouns.
    gangsta — “gangster”
    brotha — “brother”
See alsoEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Representing the nominative singular case ending of Latin first-declension feminine nouns.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-a ‎(plural -ae or )

  1. Marks singular nouns, with a foundation in Greek or Latin, often implying femininity, especially when contrasted with words terminating in -us.
SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

From Latin -a.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. Changes an element or substance into an oxide.
    magnesia

Etymology 5Edit

Shortened version of verb have.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. (slang) Alternative form of -'ve
    who'da thunk it?
    shoulda, coulda, woulda

Etymology 6Edit

Representing Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish feminine nouns.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. Marks nouns, with a foundation in Italian, Spanish, or Portuguese, implying femininity.

Etymology 7Edit

Added to lines of poetry and verse to maintain metrics.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. Added for metrical reasons to poetry and verse

Etymology 8Edit

Shortened version of preposition of.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. (slang) clitic form of o'
    lotta, loadsa, cuppa, kinda, sorta

Etymology 9Edit

Shortened version of verb to.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. (informal) to (infinitive marker)
    oughta, wanna, gotta, gonna

ReferencesEdit

  • Lesley Brown (editor), The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 5th edition (Oxford University Press, 2003 [1933], ISBN 978-0-19-860575-7), page 1
  • Christine A. Lindberg (editor), The Oxford College Dictionary, 2nd edition (Spark Publishing, 2007 [2002], ISBN 978-1-4114-0500-4), page 1

DutchEdit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. Plural form of -um
  2. feminine form of -us

SynonymsEdit


EsperantoEdit

EtymologyEdit

From feminine singular adjectives (and nouns) of the Romance languages, such as French ma, Italian mia, Spanish mía, fría.

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. Related to, in the manner of, of. (Ending for all adjectives in Esperanto.)
    belo; bela — “beauty; beautiful”
    dekstro; dekstra — “the right direction (as opposed to left); to the right”
    vero; vera — “truth; true”
  2. Belonging to, of. (Ending for all possessive pronouns in Esperanto.)
    mia — “of me, my”
    via — “of you, your”
    ilia — “of them, their”
  3. -kind of. (Ending of all correlatives of kind in Esperanto.)
    kia — “what kind of
    tia — “that kind of
    nenia — “no kind of

Derived termsEdit


FinnishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (in words with front vowel harmony)

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Finnic *-da, from the Proto-Uralic ablative case *-ta. A variant form *-ta (whence Finnish -ta) was used after a syllable with secondary stress (suffixal gradation).

SuffixEdit

-a ‎(front vowel harmony variant )

  1. (case suffix) Forms the partitive case of nouns, adjectives, numbers and some pronouns.

Usage notesEdit

  • This suffix is used after a short vowel or the plural marker -j-.

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Finnic *-dak. Historically, a form of a lative suffix.

SuffixEdit

-a ‎(front vowel harmony variant )

  1. (verbal suffix) Forms the short form of the first infinitive of verbs.

Usage notesEdit

  • The first infinitive, short form, is the citation form of verbs.

See alsoEdit


FrenchEdit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. Suffix indicating the third-person singular past historic of -er verbs.

HungarianEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. (possessive suffix) his, her, its (third-person singular, single possession)
    ház ‎(house) → a háza ‎(his/her/its house)

DeclensionEdit

Inflection (plural in -k, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative -a
accusative -át
dative -ának
instrumental -ával
causal-final -áért
translative -ává
terminative -áig
essive-formal -aként
essive-modal -ául
inessive -ában
superessive -án
adessive -ánál
illative -ába
sublative -ára
allative -ához
elative -ából
delative -áról
ablative -ától

Usage notesEdit

  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -a is added to back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -e is added to front vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ja is added to back vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-.
    -je is added to front vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -e changes to -é-.

See alsoEdit


IcelandicEdit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. Used to form verbs from nouns.
    sparksparka — a kick → to kick
    mjólkmjólka — milk → to milk
    vonvona — hope → to hope
    ávarpávarpa — an address → to address
    ritrita — a writ → to write
    rassrassa — an ass → to spank (on the ass)
  2. Used to form adverbs from adjectives.
    illurillabadbadly

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit


IdoEdit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. suffix denoting adjective.
    arjento ‎(silver (noun)) + ‎-a → ‎arjenta ‎(silver (adjective))

Derived termsEdit


Usage notesEdit

One may elide the final a of the adjectives, but with the condition not to produce accumulation from the consonants. One advise to use the elision mainly with the derivatived adjectives and particularly when they finish with -al-(a).[1]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ “KGD”, in Kompleta gramatiko detaloza[1] (in Ido), accessed 2015-12-23

ItalianEdit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. Used, with a stem, to form the third-person singular present tense of -are verbs.
  2. Used, with a stem, to form the second-person singular imperative of -are verbs.
  3. Used, with a stem, to form the first-person singular, second-person singular and third-person singular present subjunctive of -ere verbs, and of those -ire verbs that do not insert "isc".
  4. Used, with a stem, to form the third-person singular imperative of -ere verbs, and of those -ire verbs that do not insert "isc".

LatinEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂ (forming in this case masculine nouns).

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-a m ‎(genitive -ae); first declension

  1. suffixed to the roots of verbs, forms masculine agent nouns
    adveniō + ‎-a → ‎advena
    caedō + ‎-a → ‎-cīda
    colō + ‎-a → ‎-cola
    scrībō + ‎-a → ‎scrība
DeclensionEdit

First declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative -a -ae
genitive -ae -ārum
dative -ae -īs
accusative -am -ās
ablative -īs
vocative -a -ae
SynonymsEdit
  • (suffixed to the roots of verbs, forms masculine agent nouns): -ō¹
Derived termsEdit


ReferencesEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From the Old Latin -ād, originally the ablative feminine singular form of first-declension adjectives (compare -us, suffix forming adjectives).

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

‎(not comparable)

  1. suffixed chiefly to the stems of adjectives terminating in -ter, forms adverbs which are frequently also used as prepositions
    cis + citrā
    exter + extrā
    in- + -ter + intrā
    uls + ultrā
Derived termsEdit


ReferencesEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Declined forms of -us ‎(suffix forming adjectives).

Pronunciation 1Edit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. nominative feminine singular of -us
  2. nominative neuter plural of -us
  3. accusative neuter plural of -us
  4. vocative feminine singular of -us
  5. vocative neuter plural of -us

Pronunciation 2Edit

SuffixEdit

  1. ablative feminine singular of -us

Etymology 4Edit

A conjugated form of -ō³ ‎(suffix forming verbs).

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

  1. second-person singular present active imperative of

LatvianEdit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. Used to derive feminine nouns from masculine nouns (like English -ess).

SynonymsEdit

Related termsEdit

Feminine suffixes that include -a:

Derived termsEdit



Northern SamiEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Samic *-ëk. Cognate with Finnish -e.

SuffixEdit

-a ‎(with odd-syllable stems -at)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating something used for performing the verb.
    loavdit ‎(to cover the tent) + ‎-a → ‎loavdda ‎(tent cloth)
  2. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating something that results from having the verb's action performed.
    čállit ‎(to write) + ‎-a → ‎čála ‎(writing)

Usage notesEdit

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable in the nominative singular and essive, and the strong grade in the other forms.

InflectionEdit

Odd, no gradation
Nominative -a
Genitive -aga
Singular Plural
Nominative -a -agat
Accusative -aga -agiid
Genitive -aga -agiid
Illative -agii -agiidda
Locative -agis -agiin
Comitative -agiin -agiiguin
Essive -an
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -agan -ageame -ageamet
2nd person -agat -ageatte -ageattet
3rd person -agis -ageaskka -ageaset

Derived termsEdit



Old EnglishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Germanic *-ō.

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. Ending forming adverbs
    hwær + ‎-a → ‎hwāra ‎(where)
    ġilīco ‎(similarly)
    singal ‎(continuous) + ‎-a → ‎singala ‎(continually, constantly)

Etymology 2Edit

Cognate with Old High German -o.

SuffixEdit

-a m

  1. nominative masculine n-stem ending
    nama ‎(name); scūa ‎(shadow)
  2. used to form masculine agents from verbs
    huntian ‎(to hunt) + ‎-a → ‎hunta ‎(hunter)
    etan ‎(to eat) + ‎-a → ‎ǣta ‎(eater)
DeclensionEdit
DescendantsEdit

Old NorseEdit

EtymologyEdit

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions.

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. indicates negation; does not

PortugueseEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Portuguese -a, from Latin -a.

SuffixEdit

-a f ‎(plural -as)

  1. forms feminine nouns and adjectives
    Uruguai ‎(Uruguay) + ‎-a → ‎uruguaia ‎(woman from Uruguay)

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Portuguese -a, from Latin -at.

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. forms the third-person singular present indicative of verbs ending in -ar
    João fala português.
    John speaks Portuguese.

Etymology 3Edit

From Old Portuguese -a, from Latin .

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. forms the second-person singular affirmative imperative of verbs ending in -ar
    João, conta-nos o seu apelido.
    John, tell us your last name.

Etymology 4Edit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. forms the first-person singular present subjunctive of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    É importante que eu coma carne.
    It is important that I eat meat.
  2. forms the third-person singular present subjunctive of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    É importante que ele coma carne.
    It is important that he eat meat.
  3. forms the third-person singular affirmative imperative of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    Ei você aí, coma carne.
    Hey you there, eat meat.
  4. forms the third-person singular negative imperative of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    Ei você aí, não coma carne.
    Hey you there, don’t eat meat.
Usage notesEdit

The third-person imperative isn’t used with third person pronouns, it’s used with você, which is a second-person pronoun but always takes third-person conjugation.


RomanianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • -ua (used for feminine nouns ending in a stressed vowel or diphthong)

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin illa, nominative feminine singular of ille.

SuffixEdit

-a f

  1. (definite article) the (feminine singular, nominative and accusative)
Usage notesEdit

This form of the definite article is used for feminine nouns in the nominative and accusative cases which end in or in an unstressed vowel:

The suffix is also used with feminine adjectives in the nominative and accusative cases to make the articulated definite form, often for emphasis, and it is used before the noun it modifies:

Related termsEdit
  • -l (masculine/neuter singular nominative and accusative)
  • -i (masculine/neuter plural nominative and accusative)
  • -le (feminine plural nominative and accusative)
  • -lui (masculine/neuter singular genitive and dative)
  • -ei (feminine singular genitive and dative)
  • -lor (plural genitive and dative)

Etymology 2Edit

From Latin -āre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of first conjugation verbs. Cognate with Spanish -ar, French -er, Italian -are, etc.

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.
Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit


Serbo-CroatianEdit

SuffixEdit

-a (Cyrillic spelling )

  1. Suffix appended to words (usually verbal stems) to create a feminine noun, usually denoting a relation or to form a proper noun.

SpanishEdit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. -ess. (Used to form feminine singular nouns.)
    señor; señora — “gentleman; lady”
    camarero; camarera — “waitor; waitress”
  2. (Used to form the feminine singular adjectives.)
    frío; fría — “cold; cold”
  3. -s. (Used to form the third-person singular (also used with usted) present indicative mood of regular -ar verbs.)
    hablar; habla — “to talk; talks”
  4. (Used to form the first and third-person singular (also used with usted) singular subjunctive mood of -er and -ir verbs, also used for the imperative mood of usted.)
    comer; aunque yo coma — “to eat; even if I ate”; salir; por favor, salga Ud. — “to leave; please leave (formal)”
  5. (Used to form the second-person singular imperative mood of -ar verbs.)
    hablar; ¡Habla! — “to talk; Talk!”

Derived termsEdit


SwedishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse -a, from Proto-Germanic *-ōną.

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. (on an positive adjective) Suffix to mark that the corresponding noun is either in plural or in definite singular form
  2. Marker of definiteness for noun plurals ending in -n (fourth declension).
    läten; lätena; "sounds; the sounds"
  3. A verb-building suffix that can be added to noun or adjectives, such as disk ‎(dishes) → diska ‎(do the dishes) or öl ‎(beer) → öla ‎(to drink beer)
  4. Create a noun from a numeral, such as tre ‎(three) → trea ‎(a three; a bronze medalist; a three-room apartment)

Usage notesEdit

On adjectives 
Traditionally, if the noun is in definite singular form it should not refer to a male human, if it uses the suffix -a. If it refers to such a person, the suffix should instead be -e, but one should note that this rule is not universally adhered to - in particular dialects of northern Sweden does not recognize the -e suffix at all, but use -a in all instances.

Derived termsEdit



TurkishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (after a vowel) -ya, -ye
  • (after a possessive, dative only) -na, -ne
  • (in words with front vowel harmony) -e

SuffixEdit

-a ‎(in words with back vowel harmony)

  1. Used to form the dative case.
    İstanbul’a — “to Istanbul”
    Ankara’ya — “to Ankara”
    İzmir’e — “to Izmir”
    babasına — “to his father”
  2. Used to form gerunds.
    yürüye — “by walking”

VolapükEdit

SuffixEdit

-a

  1. A morpheme used to mark the genitive singular of a word (such as a noun, adjective or pronoun). It is also the most common morpheme used in creating innumerable compound words, some of which can be very long (e.g., pledadinaselidöp "toy store, toy shop", tanoganilamedin "antibiotic", taglumaladälamedin "anti-depressant", natrinakarbatazüd telik "bicarbonate of soda").
    Elaf Tyrannosaurus rex älifon in taledadil, kel nu binon dil Nolüda-Meropa.
    Tyrannosaurus rex lived in an area of the earth, which is now a part of North America.
    Buks binons stumem lärnazilana (/ lärnazilanastumem / stumem lärnazilanik).
    Books are a scholar's tools.
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