Translingual edit

Etymology edit

From Latin -a.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Used to create genus names from proper nouns
  2. Used to take the form of certain plural Latin-derived taxonomic names

Derived terms edit

English edit

Etymology 1 edit

From the homographic case endings of the nominative, accusative, and vocative forms of numerous Latin neuter second declension nouns.

Pronunciation edit

  • (file)

Suffix edit

-a

  1. plural of -um
  2. plural of -on
Usage notes edit
  • Whereas the regular pluralization in English involves adding -s or -es, English words derived from a Latin/Greek etymon where the Latin/Greek would pluralize from -on (Greek) or -um (Latin) to -a do not always do so. Usage of -a instead of -s differs between words: sometimes the two are interchangeable (e.g. memorandums/memoranda, polyhedrons/polyhedra), sometimes one is far more common than the other (e.g. neurons over neura, automata over automatons), and sometimes one is completely absent from usage (e.g. bacteria over bacteriums, dendrons over dendra)
  • The word data is etymologically the plural of datum but is commonly regarded as an uncountable noun.
Derived terms edit
From -um
From -on
Translations edit
See also edit
associated suffixes

Etymology 2 edit

Representing the nominative singular case ending of Latin first-declension feminine nouns.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a (plural -ae or )

  1. Marks singular nouns, with a foundation in Greek or Latin, often implying femininity, especially when contrasted with words terminating in -us.
Synonyms edit
Antonyms edit
  • (feminine suffix): he-
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

From Latin -a.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Changes an element or substance into an oxide.
    magnesium + ‎-a → ‎magnesia

Etymology 4 edit

Shortened version of verb have.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. (slang) Alternative form of 've

Etymology 5 edit

Equivalent to Etymology 2, representing Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish feminine nouns.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Marks nouns, with a foundation in Italian, Spanish, or Portuguese, implying femininity.
Synonyms edit
Antonyms edit
  • (female suffix): he-

Etymology 6 edit

Added especially for metrical reasons, or as an empty filler syllable. Also used to imitate an Italian accent.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Added for metrical reasons to songs, poetry and verse, or as an empty filler syllable to other speech.
    • c. 1610–1611 (date written), William Shakespeare, “The Winters Tale”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies [] (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, →OCLC, [Act IV, scene iii]:
      A merry heart goes all the day
      Your sad tires in a mile-a
    • 1936 July 18, Leon Schlesinger (producer) / Norman Spencer (music), I Love to Singa:
      I love to sing-a / about the moon-a and the June-a and the spring-a, / I love to sing-a / about a sky of blue-a, or a tea for two-a.
    • 1980s, “Wanna”, in Herb Owen (music), Kids Sing Praise[2], performed by Kids Sing Praise:
      I wanna wanna wanna wanna wanna wanna really wanna be just like the Lord
      So every day Im gonna gonna read the Book and rest upon-a God's own holy Word
      Of good in me there's none-a none-a that's okay because I'm gonna trust upon the work that's done-a on the Cross
      and Jesus is the one-a one-a God the Father's Son-a Son-a and my sin He cures!
    • 2014, Don Pendleton, California Hit, Open Road Media, →ISBN:
      "I'm-a tell-a you why you better be. I named you in my will, Franco."
Alternative forms edit

Etymology 7 edit

Shortened version of preposition of.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. (slang) Clitic form of o' (contraction of of).
    buncha, cuppa, kinda, loadsa, lotta, sorta

Etymology 8 edit

Shortened version of verb to.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. (informal) to (infinitive marker)

See also edit

  • -er (which, in various non-rhotic dialects, reduces to -a, e.g. fatha, burna), compare -z

References edit

Albanian edit

Etymology 1 edit

Related to e (of, the, to) and -e.

Article edit

-a f

  1. feminine singular nominative suffixed definite article. the
    Coordinate terms: (masculine) -i, -u, (plural and neuter) -të
    ditë f (day) + ‎-a → ‎dita (the day)
    natë f (night) + ‎-a → ‎nata (the night)

Etymology 2 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-a

  1. forms the plural forms for many nouns. -s
    burrë m (man) + ‎-a → ‎burra (men)
    vetull f (eyebrow) + ‎-a → ‎vetulla (eyebrows)

Basque edit

Etymology 1 edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Absolutive singular suffix.
    Liburua ekarri al duzu?Did you bring the book?
Usage notes edit
  • The suffix -a is usually described as an article. However, its usage is not equivalent to that of English the or a. In Basque, every nominal phrase must carry a determiner, which usually takes the final position in the phrase. Although many others exist, -a is the default determiner which introduces no additional meaning. Compare the following sentences. In the first two, the determiners (-a and hau (this)) apply to the noun phrase etxe handi (big house); while in the last two they apply separately to etxe (house) and handi (big):
    Etxe handia da.It is a big house.
    Etxe handi hau da.It is this big house.
    Etxea handia da.The house is big.
    Etxe hau handia da.This house is big.
  • In Standard Basque, nouns ending in -a in their indefinite form (known in Basque as a itsatsia (literally attached a)) don't change when the article is added:
    neska + ‎-a → ‎neska
Declension edit
Basque inflectional suffixes
indefinite singular plural proximal plural
absolutive -∅ -a -ak -ok
ergative -(e)k -ak -ek
dative -(r)i -ari -ei -oi
genitive -(r)en -aren -en -on
comitative -(r)ekin -arekin -ekin -okin
causative -(r)engatik -arengatik -engatik -ongatik
benefactive -(r)entzat -arentzat -entzat -ontzat
instrumental -(e)z -az -ez -oz
inessive anim. -(r)engan -arengan -engan -ongan
inanim. -(e)tan -an -etan -otan
locative anim.
inanim. -(e)tako -(e)ko -etako -otako
allative anim. -(r)engana -arengana -engana -ongana
inanim. -(e)tara -(e)ra -etara -otara
terminative anim. -(r)enganaino -arenganaino -enganaino -onganaino
inanim. -(e)taraino -(e)raino -etaraino -otaraino
directive anim. -(r)enganantz -arenganantz -enganantz -onganantz
inanim. -(e)tarantz -(e)rantz -etarantz -otarantz
destinative anim. -(r)enganako -arenganako -enganako -onganako
inanim. -(e)tarako -(e)rako -etarako -otarako
ablative anim. -(r)engandik -arengandik -engandik -ongandik
inanim. -(e)tatik -(e)tik -etik -otik
partitive -(r)ik
prolative -tzat

Further reading edit

Etymology 2 edit

Particle edit

-a

  1. (Navarro-Lapurdian) Used to form yes/no questions.
    Liburua ekarri duzuia?Did you bring the book?
Usage notes edit
  • It takes different forms depending on the ending of the verb:
    -a + ‎-a → ‎-ea
    -e + ‎-a → ‎-ea
    -o + ‎-a → ‎-oa, -oia
    -u + ‎-a → ‎-uia, -ia
  • Other dialects use the unrelated particle al.

Further reading edit

  • -a galde-partikula” in Euskara Batuaren Eskuliburua [Handbook of Standard Basque], euskaltzaindia.eus

Czech edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a m anim (noun-forming suffix)

  1. forms agent nouns referring to male people
    posrat (to shit oneself) + ‎-a → ‎posera (coward)
    nafouknout (to inflate, to blow up) + ‎-a → ‎náfuka (bighead, conceited person)

Suffix edit

-a f (noun-forming suffix)

  1. forms nouns referring to results of processes
    radit (to advise) + ‎-a → ‎rada (advise, counsel)
    naladit (to tune in) + ‎-a → ‎nálada (mood)

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • -a in Slovník afixů užívaných v češtině, 2017

Dutch edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. plural of -um
    Synonym: -ums
  2. feminine of -us

Esperanto edit

Etymology edit

From feminine singular adjectives (and nouns) of the Romance languages, such as French ma, Italian mia, Spanish mía, fría.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Related to, in the manner of, of. Ending for all adjectives in Esperanto.
    belo (beauty) + ‎-a → ‎bela (beautiful)
    dekstro (the right direction) (as opposed to left) + ‎-a → ‎dekstra (to the right)
    vero (truth) + ‎-a → ‎vera (true)
  2. Belonging to, of. Ending for all possessive pronouns in Esperanto.
    mi (I; me) + ‎-a → ‎mia (of me, my)
    vi (you) + ‎-a → ‎via (of you, your)
    ili (they; them) + ‎-a → ‎ilia (of them, their)
  3. Used to form the ordinal numeral.
    unu (one) + ‎-a → ‎unua (first)
    du (two) + ‎-a → ‎dua (second)
    dek tri (thirteen) + ‎-a → ‎dek-tria (thirteenth)
    cent (hundred) + ‎-a → ‎centa (hundredth)
  4. -kind of. Ending of all correlatives of kind in Esperanto.
    ki- + ‎-a → ‎kia (what kind of)
    ti- + ‎-a → ‎tia (that kind of)
    neni- + ‎-a → ‎nenia (no kind of)

Derived terms edit

Ending for all adjectives.
Ending for all possessive pronouns in Esperanto.
Ending of all ordinal numerals in Esperanto.
Ending of all correlatives of kind in Esperanto.

Faroese edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Used to form verbs from nouns.
    týskur (a German) + ‎-a → ‎týska (Germanize)
  2. Used to form adverbs from adjectives.
    illur (bad) + ‎-a → ‎illa (badly)

Finnish edit

Alternative forms edit

  • (in words with front vowel harmony)

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Finnic *-da, from the Proto-Uralic ablative case *-ta. A variant form *-ta (whence Finnish -ta) was used after a syllable with secondary stress (suffixal gradation).

Suffix edit

-a (front vowel harmony variant , linguistic notation -A)

  1. (case suffix) Forms the partitive case of nouns, adjectives, numbers and some pronouns.
Usage notes edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Finnic *-dak.

Suffix edit

-a (front vowel harmony variant , linguistic notation -A)

  1. (verbal suffix) Forms the short form of the first infinitive of verbs.
Usage notes edit
  • The first infinitive, short form, is the citation form of verbs.

See also edit

French edit

Etymology edit

From Latin -āt, short counterpart to -āvit.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. forms the third-person singular past historic of -er verbs

Garo edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. neutral, unmarked tense-aspect marker

Usage notes edit

In addition to present time, it often shows habitual action, and can also past and future

Gothic edit

Romanization edit

-a

  1. Romanization of -𐌰

Hungarian edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From the *sᴕ̈ third-person personal pronoun of the ancestor language after it was appended to the word of possession. According to some linguists this attachment happened in the Proto-Uralic era, while others think it happened much later when the Hungarian language became independent.[1]

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Possessive (and genitive) suffix: [from 1055]
    1. (with no possessor or with the 3rd‑person pronoun as possessor, usually construed with the definite article) hisherits …
      ház(a) háza, az ő háza (his/her/its house)élet(az) élete, az ő élete (his/her/its life)barát(a) barátja (his/her/its friend)kapu(a) kapuja (his/her/its gate)palota(a) palotája (his/her/its palace)kert(a) kertje (his/her/its garden)betű(a) betűje (his/her/its letter)vese(a) veséje (his/her/its kidney)
    2. (with a singular possessor)-'s, of … (third-person singular, single possession)
      Anna háza (Anna’s house), a felkelő nap háza (the house of the rising sun)Anna élete (Anna’s life), a város élete (the life of the city)a király palotája (the king’s palace)a ház kapuja (the gate of the house)Anna kertje (Anna’s garden), a tulipán kertje (the garden of the tulip)
    3. (with a plural possessor)-s’, of-s (third-person plural, single possession)
      a szüleim háza (my parents’ house), a trópusi növények háza ([the] house of [the] tropical plants, literally the tropical plants’ house)a szüleim élete (my parents’ lives, literally my parents’ life), a könyvek élete ([the] lives of [the] books, literally the books’ life)az uralkodók palotája (the rulers’ palace)a szüleim kertje (my parents’ garden), Az elágazó ösvények kertje (The Garden of Forking Paths)
    4. (with instantaneous time expressions) … ago (referring to a preceding point in time considered as an instant)
      Egy évszázada / két éve / egy órája / sok/hosszú ideje ment el.S/he left one century / two years / one hour / a long time ago.
      Synonym: -val/-vel ezelőtt, e.g. egy évszázaddal, két évvel ezelőtt
    5. (with durative time expressions) for … (referring to some duration that precedes the point of time in question)
      Egy évszázada / két éve / egy órája / sok/hosszú ideje várunk rád.We have been waiting for you for a century / two years / an hour / a long time.
    6. (mostly with quantities, often following -ik) of …, out of(partitive sense)
      Synonym: (only with countable quantities) közül
      jó (jav-) (the greater/better part)a java még hátravan (the best/bulk is yet to come, literally its best/bulk is…)
      legnagyobbik (the biggest one)a bikák legnagyobbika (the biggest [one] of the bulls, synonymous with a legnagyobb bika)
  2. (personal suffix) [from the end of the 12th century]
    1. Third-person singular personal suffix in back-vowel verbs. Today it can be found in the third-person singular definite forms (indicative past and imperative conjugations) as part of the suffix -ja/-je, -ta/-te.
      tud (to know)tudta (he/she knew it)
      tudtudja (he/she knows it (indicative mood))
      tudtudja (he/she should know it (subjunctive mood))
      kér (to request, ask for sth)kérte (he/she requested it)
      kérkérje (he/she should request it (subjunctive mood))
    2. Third-person singular personal suffix in back-vowel conjugated infinitives and in the declined and postposition forms of the third-person personal pronoun ő (he/she/it).
      tanulni (to study)tanulnia kell (he/she must study, literally it is necessary for him/her to study)
      kérni (to request, ask for)kérnie kell (he/she must request [it], literally it is necessary for him/her to request)
      -ról (about)róla (about him/her/it)
      -től (from)tőle (from him/her/it)
      után (after)utána (after him/her/it)
      fölött (above)fölötte (above him/her/it)
Usage notes edit
  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -a is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -e is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ja is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-; final -o changes to -ó-.
    -je is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -e changes to -é-; final changes to -ő-.
    • This suffix (in all forms) is normally used for the third-person singular possessive (single possession) but, after an explicit plural possessor, it also expresses the third-person plural possessive (single possession), e.g. “the children’s ball” (a gyerekek labdája). If the possessor is implicit (not named, only marked by a suffix), the plural possessive suffix must be used, e.g. “their ball” (a labdájuk, see -juk and its variants).
  • (personal suffix) Variants:
    -a is added to back-vowel words
    -e is added to front-vowel words
Note that the corresponding (third-person singular) indicative mood of front-vowel verbs is -i, e.g. kéri (s/he requests it).
Declension edit
Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative -a
accusative -át
dative -ának
instrumental -ával
causal-final -áért
translative -ává
terminative -áig
essive-formal -aként
essive-modal -ául
inessive -ában
superessive -án
adessive -ánál
illative -ába
sublative -ára
allative -ához
elative -ából
delative -áról
ablative -ától
non-attributive
possessive - singular
-áé
non-attributive
possessive - plural
-áéi
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

First attested in 1055. It can be traced back to Proto-Uralic *-i̮ which with the word-final vowel created the diphthong -ai̮/-ei̮. This had simplified to -á/-é, finally in the Old Hungarian era it had shortened to -a/-e. It was a productive suffix at that time, the back-vowel variant was used even in front-vowel words such as the Old Hungarian female given names Fehéra and Szépa, derived from fehér (light in color) and szép (beautiful), respectively.[1]

Suffix edit

-a

  1. (diminutive suffix) The back-vowel variant of the -a/-e diminutive suffix pair. In the past it could be found in common nouns, as well, but today it is used mostly in given names.
    cic (the sound for calling a cat)cica (kitten)
    Zsigmond (Siegmund)Zsiga (Sig)

Etymology 3 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-a

  1. (personal suffix, archaic) Used to form the third-person singular indicative past indefinite, for back-vowel verbs. The front-vowel version is -e. The suffix currently used in this place is -t, -tt, or -ott. For the full paradigm, see the usage template.

Etymology 4 edit

Along with its front-vowel counterpart -e, from the diphthongs -ai̮/-ei̮, developing to -á/-é, then shortened to this form by the end of the early Old Hungarian period. After the participle suffix became fixed as /, the remaining words suffixed with -a/-e underwent conversion; some became adjectives, others, nouns.[1]

Suffix edit

-a

  1. (obsolete participle suffix) Synonym of (present-participle suffix) From a synchronic perspective, it can be viewed as a nominal-forming suffix, preserved in some adjectives and nouns (see below). No longer productive. Its front-vowel version is -e.
Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 -a in Zaicz, Gábor (ed.). Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (‘Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN.  (See also its 2nd edition.)

Icelandic edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Used to form verbs from nouns.
    spark (a kick) + ‎-a → ‎sparka (to kick)
    mjólk (milk) + ‎-a → ‎mjólka (to milk)
    von (hope) + ‎-a → ‎vona (to hope)
    ávarp (an address) + ‎-a → ‎ávarpa (to address)
    rit (a writ) + ‎-a → ‎rita (to write)
    rass (an ass) + ‎-a → ‎rassa (to spank (on the ass))
  2. Used to form adverbs from adjectives.
    illur (bad) + ‎-a → ‎illa (badly)

Derived terms edit

See also edit

Ido edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. suffix denoting adjective.
    arjento (silver, noun) + ‎-a → ‎arjenta (silver, adjective)

Usage notes edit

One may elide the final a of the adjectives, but with the condition not to produce accumulation from the consonants. One advise to use the elision mainly with the derivatived adjectives and particularly when they finish with -al-(a).[1]

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ “KGD”, in Kompleta gramatiko detaloza[1] (in Ido), accessed 2015-12-23, archived from the original on 2012-01-27

Irish edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. plural ending of certain nouns
  2. plural ending of adjectives in the nominative, vocative, dative, and strong genitive cases
  3. genitive singular ending of third-declension nouns

Italian edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Latin -a, from Proto-Indo-European *-éh₂ (forms action nouns).

Suffix edit

-a f (noun-forming suffix, plural -e)

  1. used with a stem to form a feminine singular noun, usually a deverbal
    Synonym: -o
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Latin -at.

Suffix edit

-a (non-lemma form of verb-forming suffix)

  1. used, with a stem, to form the third-person singular present tense of -are verbs

Etymology 3 edit

From Latin .

Suffix edit

-a (non-lemma form of verb-forming suffix)

  1. used, with a stem, to form the second-person singular imperative of -are verbs

Etymology 4 edit

From Latin -(e/i)am, -(e/i)ās, -(e/i)at.

Suffix edit

-a (non-lemma form of verb-forming suffix)

  1. used, with a stem, to form the first-person singular, second-person singular and third-person singular present subjunctive of -ere verbs, and of those -ire verbs that do not insert -isc-

Etymology 5 edit

From Latin -(e/i)at.

Suffix edit

-a (non-lemma form of verb-forming suffix)

  1. used, with a stem, to form the third-person singular imperative of -ere verbs, and of those -ire verbs that do not insert -isc-

Khalaj edit

Suffix edit

preceding vowel
A / I / O / U E / Ə / İ / Ö / Ü
-a

-a

  1. Form of after the vowels A / I / O / U.

Latin edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Italic *-ā, from Proto-Indo-European *-éh₂, from Proto-Indo-European *-h₂ (suffix originally used to form collective nouns, extended in Late PIE to also be a marker of feminine gender). For the use to form masculine agent nouns from verb roots, compare Latin poeta from Ancient Greek ποιητής (poiētḗs).

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. inflection of -us:
    1. nominative/vocative feminine singular
    2. nominative/accusative/vocative neuter plural
  2. nominative/accusative/vocative neuter plural of -s

Suffix edit

-a f or m (genitive -ae); first declension

  1. suffixed to the root of a masculine noun denoting a male, forms a feminine noun denoting a female counterpart.
    equus m (horse) + ‎-a → ‎equa f (female horse, mare)
    flāmen m (flamen) + ‎-a → ‎flāmina f (wife of a flamen)
    magister m (master, instructor) + ‎-a → ‎magistra f (mistress, instructress)
  2. suffixed to the roots of (usually compound) verbs, forms (usually masculine) agent nouns
    adveniō + ‎-a → ‎advena
    ager + ‎colō + ‎-a → ‎agricola
    caedō + ‎-a → ‎-cīda
    colō + ‎-a → ‎-cola
    cōnferveō + ‎-a → ‎cōnferva f
    cōnsolidō + ‎-a → ‎cōnsolida f
    scrībō + ‎-a → ‎scrība
Declension edit

First-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -a -ae
Genitive -ae -ārum
Dative -ae -īs
Accusative -am -ās
Ablative -īs
Vocative -a -ae

1. Certain masculine nouns ending in -a, especially those ending in -cola and -gena, sometimes have a short genitive plural form ending in -um instead of -ārum.

2. Feminine nouns such as fīlia (daughter) that have a second-declension masculine counterpart that takes the ending -īs in the dative and ablative plural (fīlius (son), with the dative and ablative plural fīliīs) sometimes take the ending -ābus instead of -īs in the dative and ablative plural to avoid ambiguity. Forms in -ābus are attested earliest for the nouns fīlia and dea (goddess), and later on for others such as līberta (freedwoman), equa (mare) and anima.

Synonyms edit
  • (suffixed to the roots of verbs, forms masculine agent nouns): -ō¹
Derived terms edit

References edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Latin -ād, first-declension ablative singular ending.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

  1. ablative feminine singular of -us

Suffix edit

(not comparable)

  1. suffixed chiefly to the stems of adjectives terminating in -ter, forms adverbs which are frequently also used as prepositions
    citer + citrā
    exter + extrā
    in- + -ter + intrā
    ulter + ultrā
Derived terms edit

References edit

Etymology 3 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

  1. second-person singular present active imperative of (first conjugation)

Latvian edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Used to derive feminine nouns from masculine nouns (like English -ess).
    Synonym: -e

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

Feminine suffixes that include -a

Lushootseed edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. and (attached only to čəd, čəxʷ, čəɬ & čələp)

Derived terms edit

Makasar edit

Article edit

-a

  1. the (definite article for common nouns)
    Ba'dai uringa.[1]The saucepan is leaking.

References edit

  1. ^ Aburaerah Arief (1995) Kamus Makassar–Indonesia, Ujung Pandang: Yayaan Perguruan Islam Kapita, page 29.

Maltese edit

Alternative forms edit

  • -ja (used after -i, -j; also another ending of different origin)
  • -wa (used after -u, -w)

Etymology edit

From Arabicـَة(-a), reinforced by Sicilian and Italian -a, which are unrelated but used similarly.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /a/
  • Homophone: -ha (distinct after -h, -ħ, -għ; may also trigger different stem alternations)

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Used to form the feminine forms of most nouns and adjectives.
  2. Used to form the plurals of some nouns and adjectives.
  3. Used to form singulatives from collective nouns.

Maori edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. passive ending (used mainly for verbs with one or two vowels)

Derived terms edit

Mbyá Guaraní edit

Etymology 1 edit

Cognate with Guaraní -va.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. nominalizes the action of the verb
    pendeayvua
    that which you say
  2. indicates the place of the verb
    ooa
    where he is going
  3. indicates the time of the action of the verb
    nhama'etỹa ára
    the day in which we planted

Etymology 2 edit

Cognate with Guaraní -ha.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. forms ordinal numbers
    mboapya
    third

Murui Huitoto edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Forms nouns denoting the action of the suffixed verb; -ing, -tion

Derived terms edit

References edit

  • Katarzyna Izabela Wojtylak (2017) A grammar of Murui (Bue): a Witotoan language of Northwest Amazonia.[3], Townsville: James Cook University press (PhD thesis), page 81

Northern Sami edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Samic *-ëk. Cognate with Finnish -e.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a (with odd-syllable stems -at)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating something used for performing the verb.
    loavdit (to cover the tent) + ‎-a → ‎loavdda (tent cloth)
  2. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating something that results from having the verb's action performed.
    čállit (to write) + ‎-a → ‎čála (writing)

Usage notes edit

  • This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable in the nominative singular and essive, and the strong grade in the other forms.

Inflection edit

Odd, no gradation
Nominative -at
Genitive -aga
Singular Plural
Nominative -at -agat
Accusative -aga -agiid
Genitive -aga -agiid
Illative -agii -agiidda
Locative -agis -agiin
Comitative -agiin -agiiguin
Essive -agin
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -agan -ageamẹ -ageamẹt
2nd person -agat -ageattẹ -ageattẹt
3rd person -agis -ageaskkạ -ageasẹt

Derived terms edit

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-a

  1. the, Definite marker used for
    Synonym: (only for strong nouns; nonstandard since 2012) -i
    1. the definite singular of (strong) feminine nouns.
    2. the definite plural of strong neuter nouns.
    3. (dialectal) the dative singular case of strong masculine nouns.
    4. (archaic, nonstandard) Used to form definite singular dative case of weak masculine and neuter nouns
  2. -ed, Used for:
    1. the past tense of a-verbs.
    2. the supines of a-verbs and some preterite-present verbs (e.g. har bada, kasta, kunna, skulla, vilja).
    3. the past participles of a-verbs.
    4. adjectives (e.g. grepa, heilhjarta).
  3. Used to form an infinitive form for most verbs. When using split infinitive, this only applies to a select group.
  4. Used to form singular indefinite feminine form of some pronouns and adjectives (e.g. inga, lita, noka etc.).
    Synonym: -i (non-standard since 2012)
  5. plural of -um
  6. plural of -on
  7. Used as an ending of weak nouns and adjectives. Used for:
    1. the singular of weak feminine nouns, indefinite (non-standard since 2012) and definite forms.
    2. the singular of weak neuter nouns, indefinite and definite forms (e.g. auga, hjarta, øyra).
    3. (dated or dialectal) adverbs ((pre-2012) alternative form of -e).
    4. (Landsmål, archaic or dialectal) the singular definite feminine and neuter forms of adjectives.
  8. (Landsmål, archaic, nonstandard) Used to form the feminine indefinite plural of adjectives.
  9. (Landsmål, archaic, nonstandard) Used to form the genitive plural of nouns.
    Synonyms: -a-, -e-

Anagrams edit

Old English edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-West Germanic *-ō, from Proto-Germanic *-ô. Cognate with Old High German -o.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. nominative masculine n-stem ending
    ācweornasquirrel
    folafoal
    dracadragon
    grīmamask
    heorradoor hinge
  2. used to form the nominative singular n-stem (weak) adjective and subsequent nominalised form
    eald (old) + ‎-a → ‎(sē) ealda ((the/that) old; (the/that) old one/thing)
  3. used to form masculine agents, usually from verbs
    Synonyms: -end, -ere
    ġiefan (to give) + ‎-a → ‎ġiefa (giver)
    dēman (to judge) + ‎-a → ‎dēma (a judge)
    cuman (to come) + ‎-a → ‎cuma (guest)
Declension edit
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Middle English: -e

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-West Germanic *-ō, from Proto-Germanic *-ô.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Ending forming adverbs
Usage notes edit
  • Though it was common in Proto-Germanic and Proto-West Germanic, in Old English this ending is restricted to only a few adverbs, among them sōna (immediately) and ġeāra (long ago). The competing suffix -e is much more common, along with -līċe.
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Middle English: -e (fossilised)

Old Galician-Portuguese edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Latin -at, from Proto-Italic *-āt, from Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂yéti.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. a suffix indicating the second-person singular present indicative of a verb in -ar
    amar (to love) + ‎-a → ‎ama ([he/she/it] loves)
    cantar (to sing) + ‎-a → ‎canta ([he/she/it] sings)

Descendants edit

  • Fala: -a
  • Galician: -a
  • Portuguese: -a

Old Irish edit

Pronoun edit

-a

  1. combines with prepositions to form a relative pronoun
    ar (for the sake of) + ‎-a → ‎ara (for the sake of whom/which)

Derived terms edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. forms the comparative degree of some adjectives
    Synonym: -iu

Usage notes edit

Used with a relatively small number of adjectives to form an irregular comparative. The regular, productive comparative suffix is -iu.[1]

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Thurneysen, Rudolf (1940, reprinted 2003), D. A. Binchy and Osborn Bergin, transl., A Grammar of Old Irish, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, →ISBN, § 375, pages 236–37

Old Norse edit

Etymology 1 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Alternative forms edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. indicates negation; does not (Can we add an example for this sense?)

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Germanic *-ōną.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Creates denominative verbs from nouns
  2. Creates factitive verbs from adjectives
Conjugation edit
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Danish: -e
  • Icelandic: -a
  • Faroese: -a
  • Norwegian:
    Norwegian Nynorsk: -e, -a
  • Old Swedish: -a
    • Swedish: -a

Etymology 3 edit

From Proto-Germanic *-ê and *-ô.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Used to make adverbs from adjectives
    gjarn + ‎-a → ‎gjarna
Descendants edit
  • Icelandic: -a

Etymology 4 edit

From Proto-Germanic *-ǭ or *-ô.

Suffix edit

-a f or n

  1. Occurs in the nominative singular of feminine on-stem nouns
  2. Occurs in the singular of neuter an-stem nouns
Declension edit

Etymology 5 edit

Different noun forms.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. indefinite genitive plural (of nouns)
  2. inflection of -i (masculine an-stem nouns):
    1. indefinite oblique singular
    2. indefinite accusative plural
  3. indefinite accusative plural of -r (masculine a-stem nouns)

Old Swedish edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse -a.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Creates denominative verbs from nouns
  2. Creates factitive verbs from adjectives
    sighia
    to say
    hælgha
    to celebrate

Conjugation edit

Descendants edit

  • Swedish: -a

Old Tupi edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. nominalizer suffix (atonic morpheme added at the end of a word's stem to form a noun)

Derived terms edit

Phalura edit

Etymology 1 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Third person singular suffix
Alternative forms edit
  • -íi (With e-ending verb stems)
  • -óo (With a-ending verb stems)
  • -e (Biori)
  • -úu (With a-ending verb stems in Biori)

References edit

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[4], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 2 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Plural suffix (with a-declension nouns)
Alternative forms edit
  • (With accent-shifting nouns)
  • -ée (Alternation with ái-a for ai-ending nouns)

References edit

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[5], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 3 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Oblique case suffix (with a-declension nouns)
Alternative forms edit
  • (With accent shifting nouns)
  • -ée (Alternation with ái-a for ai-ending nouns)

References edit

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[6], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 4 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Masculine plural agreement suffix

References edit

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[7], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 5 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Masculine non-nominative and non-singular agreement suffix

References edit

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[8], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Polish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-a, from Proto-Indo-European *-éh₂.

Suffix edit

-a f

  1. forms nominative feminine nouns
  2. forms feminine names from masculine names
    Zdzisław + ‎-a → ‎Zdzisława
  3. (obsolete) forms feminine nominative and vocative forms of short forms of adjectives
    rad + ‎-a → ‎rada.
Declension edit

Suffix edit

-a m pers (feminine -yni)

  1. forms masculine personal agent nouns
Declension edit

Etymology 2 edit

Inherited from Old Polish , from Proto-Slavic *-aja, from *-a +‎ *-ja.

Suffix edit

-a f

  1. forms feminine nominative and vocative forms of adjectives
    główny + ‎-a → ‎główna

Etymology 3 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ьja. Doublet of -ia.

Suffix edit

-a f (neuter -e)

  1. forms collective nouns, causes palatalization

Suffix edit

-a

  1. forms some plural forms, causes palatalization
    brat + ‎-a → ‎bracia

Etymology 4 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-a, from Proto-Indo-European *-éad, the thematic ablative suffix.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. used to create the masculine genitive singular, usually of animate nouns, but also of some inanimate nouns
    Zdzisław + ‎-a → ‎Zdzisława
    but + ‎-a → ‎buta
  2. forms genitive singular of neuter nouns
    zdanie + ‎-a → ‎zdania
  3. used in some adverbial constructions
    od dawna
    zgoła

Etymology 5 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-a.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. forms the nominative plural of neuter nouns
    zdanie + ‎-a → ‎zdania
Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • -a in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Old Galician-Portuguese -a, from Latin -am.

Suffix edit

-a f (plural -as)

  1. feminine singular of -o
    uruguaio (Uruguayan (masculine)) + ‎-a → ‎uruguaia (Uruguayan (feminine))

Suffix edit

-a f (noun-forming suffix, plural -as)

  1. forms feminine nouns from adjectives, indicating people having the quality of the source adjective
    Uruguai (Uruguay) + ‎-o → ‎uruguaio (Uruguayan) + ‎-a → ‎uruguaia (Uruguayan woman or girl)

Etymology 2 edit

Inherited from Old Galician-Portuguese -a, from Latin -at.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. a suffix indicating the third-person singular present indicative of a verb in -ar
    amar (to love) + ‎-a → ‎ama ([he/she/it] loves)
    cantar (to sing) + ‎-a → ‎canta ([he/she/it] sings)
See also edit

Etymology 3 edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese -a, from Latin .

Suffix edit

-a

  1. forms the second-person singular affirmative imperative of verbs ending in -ar
    João, conta-nos o teu apelido.John, tell us your last name.

Etymology 4 edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese -a, from Latin -am, -eam.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. forms the first-person singular present subjunctive of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    É importante que eu coma carne.It is important that I eat meat.

Etymology 5 edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese -a, from Latin -at, -eat.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. forms the third-person singular present subjunctive of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    É importante que ele coma carne.It is important that he eat meat.
  2. forms the third-person singular affirmative imperative of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    Ei você aí, coma carne.Hey you there, eat meat.
  3. forms the third-person singular negative imperative of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    Ei você aí, não coma carne.Hey you there, don’t eat meat.
Usage notes edit
  • The third-person imperative is not used with third person pronouns but rather with você, which is a second-person pronoun but always takes third-person conjugation.

Etymology 6 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-a m or f (noun-forming suffix, plural -as)

  1. (Brazil, slang) used in the end of shortenings
    vestibular + ‎-a → ‎vestiba (university admittance test)
    vagabundo + ‎-a → ‎vagaba (loafer)

Romani edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Forms the nominative plural of consonantal oikoclitic nouns
    phral (brother) + ‎-a → ‎phrala (brothers)
    ćhaj (daughter) + ‎-a → ‎ćhaja (daughters)
  2. Forms the accusative singular of unjotated oikoclitic animate feminine nouns
    daj (mother) + ‎-a → ‎daja
  3. Forms the feminine singular oblique of consonantal oikoclitic nouns. Displaced by -e in most dialects
    phuro (old (animate)) + ‎-a → ‎phura

Derived terms edit

References edit

  • Yaron Matras; Anton Tenser, editors (August 2020) The Palgrave Handbook of Romani Language and Linguistics, Palgrave Macmillan, →ISBN, page 30, 166

Romanian edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Latin illa, nominative feminine singular of ille.

Alternative forms edit

  • -uaused for feminine nouns ending in a stressed vowel or diphthong

Suffix edit

-a f

  1. (definite article) the (feminine singular, nominative and accusative)
Usage notes edit

This form of the definite article is used for feminine nouns in the nominative and accusative cases which end in or in an unstressed vowel:

The suffix is also used with feminine adjectives in the nominative and accusative cases to make the articulated definite form, often for emphasis, and it is used before the noun it modifies:

Related terms edit
  • -ei (feminine singular genitive and dative)
  • -i (masculine/neuter plural nominative and accusative)
  • -l (masculine/neuter singular nominative and accusative)
  • -le (feminine plural nominative and accusative)
  • -lor (plural genitive and dative)
  • -lui (masculine/neuter singular genitive and dative)

Etymology 2 edit

Inherited from Latin -āre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of first conjugation verbs. Cognate with Spanish -ar, French -er, Italian -are, etc.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.
Conjugation edit
Related terms edit
See also edit

Derived terms edit

Serbo-Croatian edit

Etymology 1 edit

Suffix edit

-a (Cyrillic spelling )

  1. Suffix appended to words (usually verbal stems) to create a feminine noun, usually denoting a relation or to form a proper noun.

Etymology 2 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-a, from Proto-Indo-European *-ōd, the thematic ablative ending.

Suffix edit

-a (Cyrillic spelling )

  1. Forms the genitive singular of masculine and neuter nouns and indefinite adjectives.

Slovak edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ę.

Suffix edit

-a n

  1. forms nouns for young animals and other diminutives

Usage notes edit

  • After labio-dental and bilabial consonants is used instead.

Declension edit

Spanish edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Latin -a.

Suffix edit

-a f (noun-forming suffix, plural -as)

  1. -ess forms feminine singular nouns
    señor (gentleman) + ‎-a → ‎señora (lady)
    camarero (waiter) + ‎-a → ‎camarera (waitress)

Suffix edit

-a f (non-lemma form of adjective-forming suffix)

  1. forms feminine singular adjectives
    frío (cold) + ‎-a → ‎fría (cold)

Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Inherited from Latin -at, the third-person singular present active indicative ending of first conjugation verbs.

Suffix edit

-a (non-lemma form of verb-forming suffix)

  1. forms the third-person singular (also used with usted) present indicative mood of regular -ar verbs
    hablar (to talk) + ‎-a → ‎habla (talks)

Etymology 3 edit

Inherited from Latin -eam, Latin -am, and Latin -iam the first-person singular present active subjunctive endings of second, third, and fourth conjugation verbs, respectively; and from Latin -eat, Latin -at, and Latin -iat, the third-person singular present active subjunctive ending of second, third, and fourth conjugation verbs, respectively.

Suffix edit

-a (non-lemma form of verb-forming suffix)

  1. forms the first and third-person singular (also used with usted) singular present subjunctive mood of -er and -ir verbs, also used for the imperative mood of usted
    comer (to eat) + ‎-a → ‎aunque yo coma (even if I ate)
    salir (to leave) + ‎-a → ‎por favor, salga Ud. (please leave) (formal)

Etymology 4 edit

Inherited from Latin (second-person singular present active imperative ending of first conjugation verbs).

Suffix edit

-a (non-lemma form of verb-forming suffix)

  1. forms the second-person singular imperative mood of -ar verbs
    hablar (to talk) + ‎-a → ‎¡Habla! (Talk!)

Swahili edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. positive indicative ending for verbs of Bantu origin

Usage notes edit

Several tenses (such as the ones which historically derive from auxiliary + main verb) keep their ending -a even in the negative.

See also edit

Swahili TAM markers
Initial
Positive infinitive ku-/kw-1
Negative infinitive kuto-
Habitual hu-1
Telegrammic ka-1
Final
General (positive indicative) -a
Positive subjunctive -e
Negative present -i
Second person plural -ni
Infix position
positive subject concord
Positive past -li-
Positive present -na-
Positive future -ta-
Negative subjunctive -si-1
Positive present conditional -nge-
Negative present conditional -singe-
Positive past conditional -ngali-
Negative past conditional -singali-
Gnomic -a-1
Perfect -me-
"Already" past -lisha-
"Already" present -mesha-/-sha-
"If/When" -ki-1
"If not" -sipo-
Consecutive -ka-1
Infix position
negative subject concord
Negative past -ku-1
Negative future -ta-
"Not yet" -ja-1
Negative present conditional -nge-
Negative past conditional -ngali-
Relative
Past -li-
Present -na-
Future -taka-
Negative -si-
1 Can take stress and therefore does not require -ku-/-kw- in monosyllabic verbs.

Swedish edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Swedish -a, from Old Norse -a, from Proto-Germanic *-ōną.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. A verb-building suffix that can be added to nouns or adjectives.
    disk (dishes) + ‎-a → ‎diska (to do the dishes)
    mjölk (milk) + ‎-a → ‎mjölka (to milk)
    öl (beer) + ‎-a → ‎öla (to drink beer)
Conjugation edit
  • For weak verbs with a voiceless ending stem:
  • For weak verbs with a voiced ending stem:
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

The language noun sense originally comes from the definite adjective + tunga (tongue; language). Thus svenska (Swedish) was originally svenska tungan (the Swedish tongue)

Suffix edit

-a

  1. (on a positive adjective) Weak (definite) singular suffix, historically feminine
  2. Transform an adjective describing a people speaking a language into the noun for that language.
    engelsk (English) + ‎-a → ‎engelska (the English language)
Usage notes edit
  • On adjectives: Traditionally, if the noun is in the definite singular form it should not refer to a male human if it uses the suffix -a. If it refers to such a person, the suffix should instead be -e, but one should note that this rule is not universally adhered to – in particular dialects of northern Sweden do not recognize the -e suffix at all, but use -a in all instances.

Etymology 3 edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Definite plural suffix for neuter nouns of the fourth declension with regular plurals in -n, e.g. ‎äpplen (apples) + ‎-a → ‎äpplena (the apples); see also -na.
Usage notes edit
  • In informal/dialectal usage, -a may be used instead of -en to form the definite plural of the irregular fourth-declension nouns öron (ears), ögon (eyes).

Etymology 4 edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Create a noun from a numeral.
    tre (three) + ‎-a → ‎trea (a bronze medalist; a three-room apartment, literally a three)

Tokelauan edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Polynesian *-a. Cognates include Tuvaluan -a and Samoan -a.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Creates a verb denoting an abundancy of the suffixed noun; -ful
    aiha (ice)aihā (to be icy)
    manava (belly)manavā (to be big-bellied)
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Added to transitive verbs when preceded by the subject pronoun.

References edit

  • R. Simona, editor (1986) Tokelau Dictionary[9], Auckland: Office of Tokelau Affairs, page 1

Turkish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

preceding vowel
A / I / O / U E / İ / Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -a -e
postvocalic -ya -ye

From Proto-Turkic *-ka (dative case).

Suffix edit

-a (in words with back vowel harmony)

  1. Used to form the dative case
    İstanbul + ‎-a → ‎İstanbul’a (to Istanbul)
    Ankara + ‎-a → ‎Ankara’ya (to Ankara)
    İzmir + ‎-a → ‎İzmir’e (to Izmir)
    babası + ‎-a → ‎babasına (to his father)
    suyu içtikten sonra suyu geri buzdolabına koydum
    i put the water back in the fridge after drinking it

Etymology 2 edit

preceding vowel
A / I / O / U E / İ / Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -a -e
postvocalic -ya -ye

From Proto-Turkic *-ü (gerundive suffix).

Suffix edit

-a (in words with back vowel harmony)

  1. Used to form gerunds
    Synonyms: -erek, -ip
    yürümek + ‎-a → ‎yürüye (by walking)

Etymology 3 edit

preceding vowel
A / I / O / U E / İ / Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -a -e
postvocalic -ya -ye

From Proto-Turkic *-gey (optative-predictive future case).

Suffix edit

-a (in words with back vowel harmony)

  1. Used to form the optative mood of verbs
    olmak (to happen) + ‎-a → ‎ola (may it happen)

References edit

Volapük edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. A morpheme used to mark the genitive singular of a word (such as a noun, adjective or pronoun). It is also the most common morpheme used in creating innumerable compound words, some of which can be very long
    pledadinaselidöptoy store, toy shop
    tanoganilamedinantibiotic
    taglumaladälamedinanti-depressant
    natrinakarbatazüd telikbicarbonate of soda
    Elaf Tyrannosaurus rex älifon in taledadil, kel nu binon dil Nolüda-Meropa.
    Tyrannosaurus rex lived in an area of the earth, which is now a part of North America.
    Buks binons stumem lärnazilana (/ lärnazilanastumem / stumem lärnazilanik).
    Books are a scholar's tools.

Walloon edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Latin -āculum.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Forming masculine nouns from verbs and nouns, having the sense of 'tool, object for a specific purpose'.

Derived terms edit

Welsh edit

Alternative forms edit

  • -af (colloquial first-person singular future)

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From -ha.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Forms verbnouns from verb stems. Usually denotes an action that is often repeated, e.g. frequenting a certain place or gathering a certain item.
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From -ha.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. (literary) verb suffix for the third-person singular present indicative/future

Etymology 3 edit

From -ha.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. (literary) verb suffix for the second-person singular present imperative
  2. (colloquial) verb suffix for the second-person singular present imperative

Etymology 4 edit

From -af.

Suffix edit

-a

  1. (colloquial) verb suffix for the first-person singular future

Ye'kwana edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-a

  1. Forms the nonpast tense.
  2. Marks imperfective aspect in both the recent and distant past tenses.

Usage notes edit

This suffix can cause syllable reduction. The suffix takes the form -ka when the preceding syllable is reducible and has an onset of k, -ya when the preceding syllable ends in i, and -a in other contexts.

When marking the past imperfective, this suffix never occurs alone but is always accompanied by other suffixes bearing tense/aspect or at least number information. Conversely, when marking the nonpast tense, it occurs alone without other tense/aspect markers, though it can form a plural -aato.

Derived terms edit

References edit

  • Cáceres, Natalia (2011) Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana[10], Lyon, page 213–224