See also: and -는


Alternative formsEdit

  • (-n-)see Usage notes


From Middle Korean ᄂᆞ (Yale: -no-), representing a merger of two independent Old Korean suffixes: (*-no-) and (*-nwu-). It is usually thought that (*-nwu-), despite the vowel shift, was closer to the present-tense meaning and that (*-no-) may have been a continuous aspect-marking suffix.[1][2]

The reduplicated form (-neun-) is used since the seventeenth century, except in certain contexts (see below) where the syncopated form (-n) is used after vowels.


Revised Romanization?neun
Revised Romanization (translit.)?neun
Yale Romanization?nun



  1. A present tense-marking suffix for verbs; it attaches directly to the stem, including the honorific 으시 (-eusi-), and precedes another verbal suffix.
    Coordinate terms: (-eot-, past-tense), (-get-, future)
    (meok-) + ‎ (-neun-) + ‎ (-da) → ‎먹는다 (meongneunda, one eats)
    (meok-) + ‎ (-neun-) + ‎구나 (-guna) → ‎먹는구나 (meongneun'guna, one is eating!)
    (it-) + ‎ (-neun-) + ‎ (-da) → ‎있는다 (inneunda, one stays)

Usage notesEdit

  • This suffix causes stem-final (l) to drop out.
  • This suffix takes the short form (-n-) after vowels and before the formal non-polite ending (-da). In all other cases, the full form is used: 안다 (anda), not *아는다 (*aneunda), but 아는가 (aneun'ga), not *안가 (*an'ga).

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

  • (-neun, present-tense adnominal marker)
  • 는가 (-neun'ga)


  1. ^ 鄭在永 (1999), “선어말어미 '內', '飛'와 '臥'”, in 口訣學會 제21회 共同硏究會 發表論文集 [from the 21st conference of the Society for Kugyol Studies], pages 63—86
  2. ^ 박진호 (2018), “선어말어미 ‘ᄂᆞ’와 ‘누’에 대한 문법사적 고찰: 차자표기 자료와의 관련성을 중심으로”, in 口訣學會 제54회 共同硏究會 發表論文集 [from the 54th conference of the Society for Kugyol Studies], pages 1—11