Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Korean 잇다 (ista), from Old Korean 有叱 (*Is-). Related to the past tense marker (-eot). Cognate with Jeju 잇다 (itda), 이시다 (isida), 싯다 (sitda).

Pronunciation edit

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [it̚t͈a̠]
    • (file)
  • Phonetic hangul: []
Revised Romanization?itda
Revised Romanization (translit.)?issda
Yale Romanization?issta

Verb edit

있다 (itda) (infinitive 있어, sequential 있으니)

  1. to stay, remain in a location
    어디 가지 말고, 여기 있어라!Eodi gaji malgo, yeogi isseora!Don't go anywhere and stay here!
    할머니께서는 시장 다녀오실 테니 있으라고 하셨어.
    Halmeoni-kkeseoneun sijang danyeoosil teni jib-e isseurago hasyeosseo.
    Grandmother said to stay at home because she's going to go to the market.
    1. to keep working for a company
      회사 있은 벌써 이십삼 버렸어요.
      Jeo-neun i hoesa-e isseun ji beolsseo isipsam nyeon-i dwae beoryeosseoyo.
      I've been working at this company for 23 years already.
    2. (used with an adverb) to stay in a certain state
      가만히 있다gamanhi itdato stay still and quiet
  2. for time to pass
    이제 가도 돼요?
    아니요, 있다가 오세요.
    Ije gado dwaeyo?
    Aniyo, jom itdaga oseyo.
    Should I come now?
    No, come in a little bit.
    (literally, “Is it okay for me to go now?
    No, (let) some time go by and then come.
  3. (auxiliary, after the / (-eo/a) infinitive) to be (in a state)
    죽어 있다jugeo itdato be dead
    모여 있다moyeo itdato be gathered together
  4. (auxiliary, after the (-go) connective) to be in the process of
    죽고 있다jukgo itdato be dying
    모이고 있다moigo itdato be gathering together
  5. (auxiliary, after the (-go) connective) to maintain in the result of
    오늘 아주 예쁜 입고 있네요!Oneur-eun aju yeppeun oseul ipgo inneyo!You're wearing really pretty clothes today!
    아침 이상한 구두 신고 있는 보니 좋은 구두 잃어버렸나 보구나.
    Achim-e jom isanghan gudu-reul sin'go inneun geol boni jo'eun gudu-neun ireobeoryeonna boguna.
    In the morning I saw them wearing weird dress shoes, so they must've lost their good ones.

Conjugation edit

Derived terms edit

  • 가만있다 (gamanitda, to keep quiet, remain still)
  • (prison slang) 실여있다 (siryeoitda, to wait)
  • (North Korea, euphemistic) 앉아있다 (anjaitda, for an older person to be alive)

Adjective edit

있다 (itda) (infinitive 있어, sequential 있으니)

  1. to be (in a place); to exist
    Antonym: 없다 (eopda)
    뉴욕 미국 있다.
    Nyuyog-eun Migug-e itda.
    New York is in the United States.
    물속 물고기 있다.
    Mulsog-e mulgogi-ga itda.
    There are fish in the water.
    1. (by extension) to have
      Antonym: 없다 (eopda)
      그녀 남자친구 있다.
      Geunyeo-neun namjachin'gu-ga itda.
      She has a boyfriend.
      있고 있어요.
      Jeo-neun jip-do itgo cha-do isseoyo.
      I have a house and a car.

Conjugation edit

Derived terms edit

  • 값있다 (gapsitda, to be valuable, worthy)
  • 관계있다 (gwan'gyeitda, to be related)
  • 다기있다 (dagiitda, to be stubborn)
  • 뜻있다 (tteusitda, to be ambitious, to have meaning)
  • 맛있다 (masitda, to be delicious)
  • 멋있다 (meositda, to be cool, stylish)
  • 빛있다 (bichitda, to be pretty, beautiful)
  • 상관있다 (sanggwanitda, to be interrelated)
  • 재미있다 (jaemiitda, to be amusing, interesting, entertaining)
  • 지멸있다 (jimyeoritda, to be patient; to be straightforward)

See also edit

  • 이다 (ida, “to equal (copula)”)
  • 아니다 (anida, “not to equal (negative copula)”)
  • 계시다 (gyesida, “to stay”) honorific form of 있다

References edit