-으시-

JejuEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (-si-)after vowels and (l)
  • 이시 (-isi-)after stems that end in (s), (j), or (ch)
  • 우시 (-usi-)after stems that end in the labial consonants (b), (m), & (p)

EtymologyEdit

Likely borrowed from Early Modern Korean 으시 (-usi-), and it is suggested that it may have come from exiled scholars and government officials from the mainland[1][2]. Ultimately from Old Korean (*-si).

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?-eusi-
Revised Romanization (translit.)?eusi
Yale Romanization?usi

SuffixEdit

으시 (-eusi-)

  1. An honorific suffix used primarily with the suffix 읍서 (-eupseo, formal imperative suffix) to show an increased level of deference or social distance.
    일름 ᄌᆞᆨ으십.Illeum jawg-eusip-seo.Please write down your name.
  2. (rare) An honorific suffix for verbs and adjectives indicating that the subject of the sentence or the direct possessor of it is honored; it attaches directly to the stem, preceding all other suffixes.

Usage notesEdit

This ending is noted by multiple authors as a recent usage in the Jeju language, as it traditionally does have a complex system of subject honorifics like Korean does[1][2][3][4].

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Changyong Yang; Sejung Yang; William O'Grady (2020) Jejueo : the language of Korea’s Jeju Island, Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai‘i Press, DOI:https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvwvr2qt, →ISBN, JSTOR j.ctvwvr2qt, page 215-216
  2. 2.0 2.1 Kim, Jee-hong (2001), “제주 방언 대우법 연구의 몇가지 문제 [A few issues in studies of deference in the Jeju dialect]”, in 백록어문, volume 17, page 17
  3. ^ Hong, Jong-rim (1975), “제주도방언의 의문법에 대한 고찰: 서론 [A study on the interrogative mood in the Jeju dialect: Introduction]”, in 한국어교육학회, volume 8, page 158
  4. ^ Hyun, Pyung-hyo (1977), “제주도 방언의 존대법 [Honorifics in the Jeju dialect]”, in 국어국문학, volume 74, page 23

KoreanEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (-si-)after vowels and (l)

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Korean 으시〮/ᄋᆞ시〮 (Yale: -ùsí/òsí-), from Old Korean (*-si).

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?eusi
Revised Romanization (translit.)?eusi
McCune–Reischauer?ŭsi
Yale Romanization?usi

SuffixEdit

으시 (-eusi-)

  1. An honorific suffix for verbs and adjectives indicating that the subject of the sentence or the direct possessor of it is honored; it attaches directly to the stem, preceding all other suffixes.
    , 형님 운동 언제 ?
    Yae-ya, hyeongnim-eun undong-eul eonje hasinya?
    Child, when does your older brother do his exercises?
    정말 예쁘네요.
    Son-i jeongmal yeppeusineyo.
    Your hand is truly pretty.
    선생님께서 여기 .
    Seonsaengnim-kkeseo yeogi-ro osinda.
    The teacher is coming here.
  2. (proscribed) An honorific suffix for verbs and adjectives indicating that the addressee (not the subject or the possessor) is honored
    손님, 열리겠습니다.
    Sonnim, mun-i yeollisigetseumnida.
    Sir, the door is about to open.

Usage notesEdit

  • Honoring may be considered a broad or confusing term, but it indicates that the speaker is implying that the subject (or the possessor of the subject) is above their social status level; this can include people from parents and siblings to chiefs of companies, professionals like doctors, and the president. It can also be used sarcastically, such as when joking with a close friend.
  • Within the more older generation, the honorific suffix can be seen used to honor the weather such as 비가 오신다 (biga osinda, it is raining), this is becoming less and less common though.
  • Traditionally, when a third person is honored, the speaker is implying that the addressee is also below the social status of the third person. As a result, this can come across as rude to the listener if the listener is not actually of such lower status. This use of the honorific is called 압존법 (apjonbeop). However, this principle is increasingly less used among younger speakers, who might instead often consider it impolite to not honor the third person.
  • In the colloquial language, (-si-) is also used to honor the addressee in a conversation to a level greater than that allowed by the 습니다 (-seumnida) suffix alone. Despite the fact that this is attested since as early as Middle Korean, this form is still generally considered prescriptively wrong, although it remains widespread and may eventually be accepted as standard.
  • As the suffix begins with (s), it causes the root (l) to elide: 우시다 (usida, for someone to cry) from 울다 (ulda, to cry).
  • Some verbs have special forms of honorifics that use a different root. These verbs include: 계시다 (gyesida), 잡수시다 (japsusida), 드시다 (deusida), etc...

See alsoEdit

  • (nim), the honorific suffix for many nouns
  • 께서 (-kkeseo), the honorific nominative case suffix
  • (-op-), the object honorific