This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative formsEdit


From a zero-grade stem of *mōtaną (to be permitted to, to be allowed). In the case of *maþlą, the root-final Proto-Indo-European *d of their common root was regularly lost before the instrumental *-þlą ( < *-tlom) suffix; compare the development of Proto-West Germanic *seþl from *séd-tlom.



*maþlą n

  1. gathering
  2. speech
  3. legal case
  4. agreement


neuter a-stemDeclension of *maþlą (neuter a-stem)
singular plural
nominative *maþlą *maþlō
vocative *maþlą *maþlō
accusative *maþlą *maþlō
genitive *maþlas, *maþlis *maþlǫ̂
dative *maþlai *maþlamaz
instrumental *maþlō *maþlamiz

Derived termsEdit


  • Proto-West Germanic: *maþl
    • Old English: mæþel
    • Old Frisian: mēl (in derivatives)
    • Old Saxon: mahal
      • Middle Low German: mal
    • Frankish:
    • Old High German: mahal, māl
  • Old Norse: mál
  • Gothic: 𐌼𐌰𐌸𐌻 (maþl)

Further readingEdit

  • Guus Kroonen, “Reflections on the o/zero-Ablaut in the Germanic Iterative Verbs”, in The Indo-European Verb: Proceedings of the Conference of the Society for Indo-European Studies, Los Angeles, 13-15 September 2010, Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag, 2012