This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European edit

Etymology edit

The word is either a nominalization of an adjective *h₂r̥tḱós (destroying) with no attested descendants or a derivative of *h₂rétḱ-os ~ *h₂rétḱ-es- (destruction) (cf. Avestan 𐬭𐬀𐬱𐬀𐬵 (rašah), Sanskrit रक्षस् (rákṣas)).

Noun edit

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*h₂ŕ̥tḱos m

  1. bear

Inflection edit

nominative *h₂ŕ̥tḱos
genitive *h₂ŕ̥tḱosyo
singular dual plural
nominative *h₂ŕ̥tḱos *h₂ŕ̥tḱoh₁ *h₂ŕ̥tḱoes
vocative *h₂ŕ̥tḱe *h₂ŕ̥tḱoh₁ *h₂ŕ̥tḱoes
accusative *h₂ŕ̥tḱom *h₂ŕ̥tḱoh₁ *h₂ŕ̥tḱoms
genitive *h₂ŕ̥tḱosyo *? *h₂ŕ̥tḱoHom
ablative *h₂ŕ̥tḱead *? *h₂ŕ̥tḱomos
dative *h₂ŕ̥tḱoey *? *h₂ŕ̥tḱomos
locative *h₂ŕ̥tḱey, *h₂ŕ̥tḱoy *? *h₂ŕ̥tḱoysu
instrumental *h₂ŕ̥tḱoh₁ *? *h₂ŕ̥tḱōys

Descendants edit

  • Proto-Albanian: *artsa
    • Old Albanian: ar (< shortening of *arth, where -th was mistaken for a diminutive suffix)
      • Albanian: ari (< back-formation from arinj (pl.), inherited plural of OAlb ar), arushë (feminine)
  • Proto-Anatolian: *Hŕ̥tḱos[1] (see there for further descendants)
  • Armenian:
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *irśtwā́ˀ (< *h₂r̥tḱ-wéh₂) (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Celtic: *artos (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *árktos
    • Ancient Greek: ἄρκτος (árktos) (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *Hŕ̥ćšas (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Italic: *orsos[2] (perhaps from earlier *orssos, though outcome of -tḱ- in Italic uncertain, tabooistic distortion of #ar-?[3])
    • Latin: ursus (see there for further descendants)

References edit

  1. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) “ḫartakka-”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 369
  2. ^ Schrijver, Peter C. H. (1991) The reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals in Latin (Leiden studies in Indo-European; 2), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 56:ursus 'bear' < *orsos < *h₂ortḱo- < *h₂rtḱo-
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “ursus”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 645:PIt. *orsso-