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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Alternative reconstructionsEdit


The original form was a neuter root noun, as can be seen from Latin os and Avestan 𐬀𐬯𐬙-(ast-). In the rest of the daughters, the noun has been transferred to various vocalic stems.

Medial -th- in Sanskrit अस्थि (ásthi) requires root of the form *HestH (the initial laryngeal is there to account for the canonical shape of Proto-Indo-European root). Latin reflex requires initial laryngeal to be *h₃, and Ancient Greek ὀστέον (ostéon) points to *h₁ as the root-final laryngeal.

Celtic forms require initial laryngeal to be #h₂-, so this noun is sometimes[3] reconstructed to have paradigm *h₂óst(h₁) ~ *h₂ést(h₁)s.


*h₃ésth₁ n

  1. bone


Acrostatic ablauting paradigm.

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

Related termsEdit


Further readingEdit


  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  3. ^ Steinbauer and Schrijver
  4. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013), “āyo”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 48