This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructionsEdit


The original form was a neuter root noun, as can be seen from Latin os and Avestan 𐬀𐬯𐬙-(ast-). In the rest of the daughters, the noun has been transferred to various vocalic stems.

Medial -th- in Sanskrit अस्थि (ásthi) requires root of the form *HestH (the initial laryngeal is there to account for the canonical shape of Proto-Indo-European root). The Latin reflex requires the initial laryngeal to be *h₃-, and Ancient Greek ὀστέον (ostéon) points to *h₁ as the root-final laryngeal.

Celtic forms require initial laryngeal to be *h₂-, so this noun is sometimes[3] reconstructed to have the paradigm *h₂óst(h₁) ~ *h₂ést(h₁)s.


*h₃ésth₁ n

  1. bone


Acrostatic ablauting paradigm.

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

Athematic, acrostatic
nominative *h₃ésth₁
genitive *h₃stéh₁s
singular dual plural
nominative *h₃ésth₁ *h₃ésth₁ih₁
vocative *h₃ésth₁ *h₃ésth₁ih₁
accusative *h₃ésth₁ *h₃ésth₁ih₁
genitive *h₃stéh₁s *?
ablative *h₃stéh₁s *?
dative *h₃stéh₁ey *?
locative *h₃stéh₁, *h₃stéh₁i *?
instrumental *h₃stéh₁h₁ *?

Related termsEdit


Further readingEdit


  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[2], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  3. ^ Steinbauer and Schrijver.
  4. ^ Demiraj, Bardhyl (1997) Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz [Albanian Etymologies: Investigations into the Albanian Inherited Lexicon] (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 7)‎[3] (in German), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, page 82
  5. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013), “āyo”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 48