Translingual edit

Symbol edit

os

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-1 language code for Ossetian.

English edit

Etymology 1 edit

Borrowed from Latin os (a bone).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

os (plural ossa)

  1. (anatomy) Synonym of bone.
    • 1749, Henry Fielding, The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, volume III, London: A[ndrew] Millar, [], →OCLC:
      I was once, I remember, called to a patient who had received a violent contusion in his tibia, by which the exterior cutis was lacerated, so that there was a profuse sanguinary discharge; and the interior membranes were so divellicated, that the os or bone very plainly appeared through the aperture of the vulnus or wound.
Usage notes edit

Used in anatomical terminology (e.g., Terminologia Anatomica) and sometimes by doctors and surgeons in practice, but seldom used by medical laypeople.

Hyponyms edit
Derived terms edit
Translations edit

Etymology 2 edit

Unadapted borrowing from Latin ōs (the mouth).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

os (plural ora)

  1. (anatomy, sometimes botany) An opening or entrance to a passage, particularly one at either end of the cervix, internal (to the uterus) or external (to the vagina).
    Synonym: orifice
    • 1891, Texas Medical Association, Transactions, volume 23, page 175:
      The instrument closed, as seen in Fig. 1, is then passed along the finger to the os, in and through the cervix up to the fundus of the uterus, which may be determined both by the distance and the resistance to the broad rounded head of the Capiat.
    • 2009 July 6, Armen Takhtajan, Flowering Plants, Springer Science & Business Media, →ISBN:
      [] monocolpate (“unisulcate”) pollen grains still have a continuous aperture membrane devoid of special openings (ora) in the exine for the emergence of the pollen tube.
Translations edit

Etymology 3 edit

Borrowed from Swedish ås.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

os (plural osar)

  1. An osar or esker.

Etymology 4 edit

From o +‎ -s.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

os

  1. (rare) Alternative form of o's.

References edit

Anagrams edit

Aragonese edit

Etymology edit

From Vulgar Latin *lōs, from Latin illōs.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈos/
  • Rhymes: -os
  • Syllabification: os

Article edit

os m pl

  1. the
    Os lugars d'Aragón
    The villages of Aragon

Usage notes edit

  • The form los, either pronounced as los or as ros, can be found after words ending with -o.
  • Some dialects use the form els, often shortened to es.

Aromanian edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Latin ossum, from os. Compare Romanian os.

Noun edit

os n (plural oasi or oase)

  1. bone

Derived terms edit

Catalan edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Old Catalan os, from Latin ossum, non-standard variant of os.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

os m (plural ossos)

  1. bone
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

 
l'ós bru

Inherited from Latin ursus. Compare Spanish oso, Occitan ors, French ours.

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

os m (plural ossos, feminine ossa)

  1. bear (mammal)
Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

Etymology 3 edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

os

  1. plural of o (the letter O)

Danish edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Norse oss (us).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ɔs/, [ʌs], [ɒ̽s]

Pronoun edit

os

  1. us, objective of vi
  2. (reflexive) ourselves
  3. (pluralis majestatis) ourself
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Disputed.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

os c (singular definite osen, not used in plural form)

  1. smoke
  2. reek
  3. fug

Verb edit

os

  1. imperative of ose

Daur edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Mongolic *usun. Compare Mongolian ус (us).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

os

  1. water
    En osii ter nyadem waagw tunpund suree.
    Please pour water into that washbowl.

References edit

  • Henry G. Schwarz, The Minorities of Northern China: A Survey (1984), page 140: 'water' Daur os

Dutch edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Dutch osse, from Old Dutch *osso, earlier *ohso, from Proto-Germanic *uhsô.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

os m (plural ossen, diminutive osje n)

  1. ox (a castrated bull)

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Afrikaans: os
  • Negerhollands: os

Further reading edit

  • os” in Woordenlijst Nederlandse Taal – Officiële Spelling, Nederlandse Taalunie. [the official spelling word list for the Dutch language]

Fala edit

Alternative forms edit

  • us (Lagarteiru, Valverdeñu)

Etymology edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese os, from Latin illōs.

Article edit

os m pl (singular o, feminine a, feminine plural as)

  1. (Mañegu) Masculine plural definite article; the
    • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Chapter 1: Lengua Española:
      En esti territorio se han assentau, en os anus que se indican, os habitantis siguientis:
      In this territory there were living, in the years specified, the following (amount of) inhabitants:

Pronoun edit

os

  1. (Mañegu) Third person plural masculine accusative pronoun; them

See also edit

References edit

  • Valeš, Miroslav (2021) Diccionariu de A Fala: lagarteiru, mañegu, valverdeñu (web)[3], 2nd edition, Minde, Portugal: CIDLeS, published 2022, →ISBN

French edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old French os, from Latin ossum, popular variant of os, ossis, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₃ésth₁ (bone), *h₂óst.

Pronunciation edit

  • (singular) IPA(key): /ɔs/
  • (plural) IPA(key): /o/
  • After consonants other than /z/, the plural may alternatively be pronounced like the singular (cf. the same in œufs).
  • Colloquially, some speakers use the hybrid form /os/ for both singular and plural.

Noun edit

os m (plural os)

  1. bone
    Le chien a enterré un os.
    The dog buried a bone.
  2. (informal) snag, hitch
    Synonyms: hic, accroc, anicroche
    Il y a un os.(please add an English translation of this usage example)

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

Anagrams edit

Galician edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese os, from Vulgar Latin *los, from Latin illōs, accusative plural of ille (that).

Pronunciation edit

Article edit

os m pl (masculine singular o, feminine singular a, feminine plural as)

  1. (definite) the
Usage notes edit

The definite article o (in all its forms) regularly forms contractions when it follows the prepositions a (to), con (with), de (of, from), and en (in). For example, con os ("with the") contracts to cos, and en os ("in the") contracts to nos.

Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronoun edit

os

  1. accusative of eles

Guinea-Bissau Creole edit

Etymology edit

From Portuguese osso. Cognate with Kabuverdianu osu.

Noun edit

os

  1. bone

Irish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Irish oss, from Proto-Celtic *uxsū, from Proto-Indo-European *uksḗn (bull).

Noun edit

os m (genitive singular ois, nominative plural ois)

  1. (literary) deer
    Synonym: fia
Declension edit
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Irish úas, ós, from Proto-Celtic *ouxsos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₃ewps-.

Preposition edit

os (plus dative, triggers no mutation)

  1. over, above
Derived terms edit

Mutation edit

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
os n-os hos t-os
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading edit

  • Ó Dónaill, Niall (1977) “os”, in Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla, Dublin: An Gúm, →ISBN
  • Entries containing “os” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

Istro-Romanian edit

Etymology edit

From Latin ossum, from os.

Noun edit

os n (plural ose, definite singular osu, definite plural osele)

  1. bone

Latin edit

Etymology 1 edit

 
ōs (mouth)

From Proto-Italic *ōs, from Proto-Indo-European *h₃éh₁os. Cognates include Hittite 𒀀𒄿𒅖 (aiš), Sanskrit आस् (ās), Old Irish á, Old English ōr.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ōs n (genitive ōris); third declension

  1. mouth
    Synonym: bucca
    Hyponyms: buccula, ōsculum
    • 8 CE – 12 CE, Ovid, Sorrows 1.2.35–36:
      opprimet hanc animam flūctūs, frūstrāque precantī
      ōre necātūrās accipiēmus aquās
      Waves will crush this life, and just as I am uselessly praying, by mouth we will swallow waters soon to destroy us.
      (The poet laments his storm-tossed sea voyage to exile.)
    • Genesis, Vulgate 8.11:
      at illa venit ad eum ad vesperam portans ramum olivae virentibus foliis in ore suo intellexit ergo Noe quod cessassent aquae super terram
      But it came to him in the evening carrying a green-leaved olive branch in its mouth, therefore Noah understood that the waters above the land were coming to and end.
  2. (transferred sense), (in general) head or face
    Synonym: caput
    Synonyms: (Vulgar Latin) cara, faciēs, frōns, vultus
    ad aliquem ora convertereto turn the head or face towards someone
  3. (transferred sense), (in general) facial features, countenance, appearance
    • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid 4.328–329:
      “[...] Sī quis mihi parvulus aulā / lūderet Aenēās, quī tē tamen ōre referret, [...].”
      “If [only] for me someone were playing in the hall – a little Aeneas – who, although [you were gone], would recall you by his appearance, [...].”
  4. (poetic) speech
    • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid 2.423:
      [] primi clipeos mentitaque tela / adgnoscunt, atque ora sono discordia signant.
      • 1697 translation by John Dryden
        They first observe, and to the rest betray, / Our diff'rent speech; our borrow'd arms survey.
  5. mouth, lips, opening, entrance, aperture, orifice
    • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid 4.659–660:
      Dīxit et ōs impressa torō, [...] / ait [...].
      [Dido] spoke and, having pressed her lips upon the bed, cried out: [...].
      (Although many translations have Dido bury her “face” in the “couch,” still others convey the symbolism of a farewell kiss. See: Fitzgerald, 1981: “And here she kissed the bed”; Ruden, 2021: “She kissed the bed”.)
  6. beak of a ship
  7. edge of a sword
  This entry needs quotations to illustrate usage. If you come across any interesting, durably archived quotes then please add them!
Inflection edit

Third-declension noun (neuter, imparisyllabic non-i-stem).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative ōs ōra
Genitive ōris ōrum
Dative ōrī ōribus
Accusative ōs ōra
Ablative ōre ōribus
Vocative ōs ōra
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • English: os

Etymology 2 edit

 
ossa manūs (bones of the hand)

From Proto-Indo-European *h₃ésth₁ (bone), *h₂óst. Cognates include Ancient Greek ὀστέον (ostéon), Sanskrit अस्थि (asthi) and Old Armenian ոսկր (oskr).

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

os n (genitive ossis); third declension

  1. (literal, anatomy) bone
    "ipsorum ore respondent se lassis post viam ossibus non posse de lecto surgere..." Regula magistri
    By the same mouth they respond that, due to their weary bones after travel, it is not possible to arise from bed.
    1. (transferred sense) hard or innermost part of trees or fruits; heartwood
  2. (figurative) bones, framework or outline of a discourse
  This entry needs quotations to illustrate usage. If you come across any interesting, durably archived quotes then please add them!
Inflection edit

Third-declension noun (neuter, i-stem).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative os ossa
Genitive ossis ossium
Dative ossī ossibus
Accusative os ossa
Ablative osse ossibus
Vocative os ossa
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit
Descendants edit

References edit

  • "ōs", in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • "ŏs", in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • "ōs", in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • "os", in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • os in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette, page 1095.
  • os in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[4], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to praise a man to his face: aliquem coram, in os or praesentem laudare
    • to be in every one's mouth: in ore omnium or omnibus (hominum or hominibus, but only mihi, tibi, etc.) esse
    • to harp on a thing, be always talking of it: in ore habere aliquid (Fam. 6. 18. 5)
    • physics; natural philosophy: physica (-orum) (Or. 34. 119); philosophia naturalis
    • logic, dialectic: dialectica (-ae or -orum) (pure Latin disserendi ratio et scientia)
    • all agree on this point: omnes (uno ore) in hac re consentiunt
    • unanimously: una voce; uno ore
    • mathematics: mathematica (-ae) or geometria (-ae), geometrica (-orum) (Tusc. 1. 24. 57)
    • arithmetic: arithmetica (-orum)
    • arithmetic: numeri (-orum)
    • no word escaped him: nullum verbum ex ore eius excidit (or simply ei)
    • maintain a devout silence (properly, utter no ill-omened word): favete ore, linguis = εὐφημειτε
    • to talk of a subject which was then the common topic of conversation: in eum sermonem incidere, qui tum fere multis erat in ore
    • (ambiguous) to draw every one's eyes upon one: omnium oculos (et ora) ad se convertere
    • (ambiguous) to be in every one's mouth: per omnium ora ferri
    • (ambiguous) to be a subject for gossip: in ora vulgi abire
  • Dizionario Latino italiano, Olivetti

Middle English edit

Pronoun edit

os

  1. Alternative form of us

Middle French edit

Noun edit

os m (plural os)

  1. bone

Descendants edit

  • French: os

Middle Low German edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

ös

  1. (personal pronoun, dative, accusative) Alternative form of uns.

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Norse óss. Same as Latin os.

Noun edit

os m or n (definite singular osen or oset, indefinite plural osar or os, definite plural osane or osa)

  1. an outlet, estuary, river mouth (where a river runs out of a lake, or enters a lake or the ocean)

Etymology 2 edit

Unknown.

Noun edit

os m (definite singular osen, indefinite plural osar, definite plural osane)

  1. to fume, smoke
  2. to reek, malodorousness
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Pronoun edit

os

  1. obsolete spelling of oss
    • 1770, Edvard Storm, “Guten aa Jenta paa Fjøshjellen”, in Den fyrste morgonblånen, Oslo: Novus, published 1990, page 233:
      Dæmæ venda os aat Bygden
      thus we turn towards the village

Etymology 4 edit

Verb edit

os

  1. past tense of ase
  2. imperative of ose

Further reading edit

  • “os” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.
  • “os”, in Norsk Ordbok: ordbok over det norske folkemålet og det nynorske skriftmålet, Oslo: Samlaget, 1950-2016

Old English edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From earliest Old English *ons, *ans, from Proto-Germanic *ansuz (god, deity), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ems- (engender, beget). Cognate with Old Norse áss.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ōs m

  1. a god
  2. the runic character (/o/ or /oː/)

Usage notes edit

  • The genitive plural ēsa (attested in ēsa gescot “the shot of the ēse”) and names such as Esegar display i-mutation, despite being a u-stem. This is likely a fossilization from an earlier stage between Proto-West Germanic *ansu and early Old English *ons, in which i-mutation was applied to the attested declined forms due to the word’s archaic meaning, rather than its active usage.
  • The nominative plural likely had the same process from above applied to it as well, in the form of *ēse.
  • Both i-mutated, and typically-expected forms for each affected declension are provided in the table below:

Declension edit

Synonyms edit

Old French edit

Etymology edit

From Latin ossum, popular variant of os.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

os oblique singularm (oblique plural os, nominative singular os, nominative plural os)

  1. bone

Descendants edit

  • French: os

Old Irish edit

Alternative forms edit

  • as, es, is (aberrant Würzburg forms)

Etymology edit

Hamp derives this from Proto-Celtic *sonts, plural *sontes (whence ot); ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁sónts.[1] Copular origin explains the use of independent subject pronouns with this conjunction, which otherwise are usually used with the copula is.

A more traditional theory, assumed by Pedersen and Thurneysen among others, supposes that this is a contraction of ocus (and), with the apparent copular behaviour being analogical.[2]

Conjunction edit

os (third-person plural ot)

  1. disjunctive conjunction

Usage notes edit

  • The conjunction takes on the form ot when used with the third-person plural pronoun é and os elsewhere.

Descendants edit

  • Middle Irish: os

References edit

  1. ^ Hamp, Eric P. (1978) “Varia II”, in Ériu[1], volume 29, Royal Irish Academy, →ISSN, →JSTOR, retrieved August 27, 2022, pages 149–154
  2. ^ García Castillero, Carlos (2013) “OLD IRISH TONIC PRONOUNS AS EXTRACLAUSAL CONSTITUENTS”, in Ériu[2], volume 63, Royal Irish Academy, →ISSN Invalid ISSN, →JSTOR, pages 1–39

Further reading edit

Old Saxon edit

Noun edit

os m

  1. Alternative form of as

Polish edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

os f

  1. genitive plural of osa
    Synonym: ós

Portuguese edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese os, from Vulgar Latin *los, from Latin illōs.

Pronunciation edit

 

  • Hyphenation: os

Article edit

os

  1. masculine plural of o
Quotations edit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:o.

See also edit
Portuguese articles (edit)
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
Definite articles
(the)
o a os as
Indefinite articles
(a, an; some)
um uma uns umas

Pronoun edit

os

  1. third-person plural direct objective personal pronoun; them
    Synonyms: (indirect objective) lhes, eles, (prepositional) elas
    Encontrei-os na rua.
    I met them at the street.
Usage notes edit
  • Becomes -los after verb forms ending in -r, -s, or -z, the pronouns nos and vos, and the adverb eis; the ending letter causing the change disappears.
    After ver: Posso vê-los?May I see them?
    After pôs: Pô-los ali.He put them there.
    After fiz: Fi-los ficarem contentes.I made them become happy.
    After nos: Deu-no-los relutantemente.He gave them to us reluctantly.
    After eis: Ei-los!Behold them!
  • Becomes -nos after a nasal diphthong: -ão, -am [ɐ̃w̃], -õe [õj̃], -em, -êm [ẽj̃].
    Detêm-nos como prisioneiros.They detain them as prisoners.
  • In Brazil it is being abandoned in favor of the nominative form eles.
    Eu os vi. → Eu vi eles.I saw them.
Quotations edit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:os.

See also edit
Portuguese personal pronouns (edit)
Number Person Nominative
(subject)
Accusative
(direct object)
Dative
(indirect object)
Prepositional Prepositional
with com
Non-declining
m f m f m and f m f m f m f
Singular First eu me mim comigo
Second tu te ti contigo você
o senhor a senhora
Third ele ela o
(lo, no)
a
(la, na)
lhe ele ela com ele com ela o mesmo a mesma
se si consigo
Plural First nós nos nós connosco (Portugal)
conosco (Brazil)
a gente
Second vós vos vós convosco, com vós vocês
os senhores as senhoras
Third eles elas os
(los, nos)
as
(las, nas)
lhes eles elas com eles com elas os mesmos as mesmas
se si consigo
Indefinite se si consigo

Etymology 2 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation edit

 

  • Hyphenation: os

Noun edit

os m

  1. plural of o

Romagnol edit

Noun edit

os m (invariable) (Bassa Romagna)

  1. door

Romanian edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Latin ossum, popular variant of os, ossis, from Proto-Italic *ōs, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₃ésth₁ (bone), *h₂óst.

Compare Catalan os, French os, Italian osso, Portuguese osso, Sardinian ossu, Spanish hueso.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

os n (plural oase)

  1. bone

Declension edit

Related terms edit

Further reading edit

Scottish Gaelic edit

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

os (+ dative, no mutation)

  1. (obsolete) over, above

Usage notes edit

  • Now used only in the compounds listed below.

Derived terms edit

Verb edit

os

  1. Alternative form of arsa used before vowels
    "Ial, ial," os a' chailleach"Ial, ial," said the old woman

Serbo-Croatian edit

 
Serbo-Croatian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sh

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *osь.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ȏs f (Cyrillic spelling о̑с)

  1. (Croatia) axis

Declension edit

Slovak edit

 
Slovak Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sk

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *osь.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

os f (genitive singular osi, nominative plural osi, genitive plural osí, declension pattern of kosť)

  1. axis (geometry: imaginary line)
  2. axle

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • os”, in Slovníkový portál Jazykovedného ústavu Ľ. Štúra SAV [Dictionary portal of the Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Science] (in Slovak), https://slovnik.juls.savba.sk, 2024

Slovene edit

 
Slovene Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sl

Etymology edit

From Proto-Slavic *osь.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ọ̑s f

  1. axis (geometry: imaginary line)

Inflection edit

 
The diacritics used in this section of the entry are non-tonal. If you are a native tonal speaker, please help by adding the tonal marks.
Feminine, i-stem, long mixed accent
nom. sing. ós
gen. sing. osí
singular dual plural
nominative
(imenovȃlnik)
ós osí osí
genitive
(rodȋlnik)
osí osí osí
dative
(dajȃlnik)
ôsi oséma osém
accusative
(tožȋlnik)
ós osí osí
locative
(mẹ̑stnik)
ôsi oséh oséh
instrumental
(orọ̑dnik)
osjó oséma osmí

Further reading edit

  • os”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran
  • os”, in Termania, Amebis
  • See also the general references

Spanish edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Latin vōs (accusative), vōbīs (dative).

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

os

  1. you, to you, for you; dative and accusative of vosotros

See also edit

Further reading edit

Swedish edit

Etymology 1 edit

Disputed. Possibly related to Latin odor, or alternatively Sanskrit वास (vāsa, perfume).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

os n

  1. (uncountable) (bad) smell, especially a strong smell originating from cooking
Declension edit
Declension of os 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative os oset - -
Genitive os osets - -

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Norse óss.

Noun edit

os n

  1. a river mouth; the place where a creek, stream or river enters into a lake
  2. indefinite genitive singular of o
Declension edit
Declension of os 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative os oset os osen
Genitive os osets os osens

See also edit

References edit

Anagrams edit

Volapük edit

Pronoun edit

os

  1. (impersonal pronoun) it

Welsh edit

Etymology edit

o (if) +‎ -s (him, her, it, them)

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

os

  1. if (used with factual conditionals, i.e., those that are considered likely or plausible)
    Os ydw i’n iawn, yna mae wedi canu arnat ti.
    If I’m right, then you’re done for.

See also edit

  • pe (used with counterfactual conditionals)

White Hmong edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Hmong-Mien *ʔap (duck), borrowed from Middle Chinese (MC 'aep, “duck”).[1]

Noun edit

os (classifier: tus)

  1. a duck

Etymology 2 edit

This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Not mentioned by Ratliff at all. Probably a natural exclamation in the same vein as English eh.”

Interjection edit

os

  1. a final emphatic particle, usually used to express sincerity
    Nyob zoo os.Hello.
    Tuaj os.You've come.
    Noj mov os.Please eat.

References edit

  • Heimbach, Ernest E. (1979) White Hmong — English Dictionary[5], SEAP Publications, →ISBN, page 4.
  1. ^ Ratliff, Martha (2010) Hmong-Mien language history (Studies in Language Change; 8), Camberra, Australia: Pacific Linguistics, →ISBN, page 129; 280.