This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European edit

Alternative reconstructions edit

Reconstruction edit

The original form was a neuter root noun, as can be seen from Latin os and Avestan 𐬀𐬯𐬙- (ast-). In the rest of the daughters, the noun has been transferred to various vocalic stems.

Medial -th- in Sanskrit अस्थि (ásthi) requires root of the form *HestH (the initial laryngeal is there to account for the canonical shape of Proto-Indo-European root). The Latin reflex requires the initial laryngeal to be *h₃-, and Ancient Greek ὀστέον (ostéon) points to *h₁ as the root-final laryngeal.

Celtic forms require initial laryngeal to be *h₂-, so this noun is sometimes[3] reconstructed to have the paradigm *h₂óst(h₁) ~ *h₂ést(h₁)s.

Noun edit

*h₃ésth₁ n

  1. bone

Declension edit

Acrostatic ablauting paradigm.

Athematic, acrostatic
nominative *h₃ésth₁
genitive *h₃stéh₁s
singular dual plural
nominative *h₃ésth₁ *h₃ésth₁ih₁
vocative *h₃ésth₁ *h₃ésth₁ih₁
accusative *h₃ésth₁ *h₃ésth₁ih₁
genitive *h₃stéh₁s *?
ablative *h₃stéh₁s *?
dative *h₃stéh₁ey *?
locative *h₃stéh₁, *h₃stéh₁i *?
instrumental *h₃stéh₁h₁ *?

Related terms edit

Descendants edit

Further reading edit

References edit

  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[2], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  3. ^ Steinbauer and Schrijver.
  4. ^ Demiraj, B. (1997) Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz [Albanian Etymologies: []] (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 7)‎[3] (in German), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, page 82
  5. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013) “āyo”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 48