Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/kapyéti

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From *kap- +‎ *-yéti.

VerbEdit

*kapyéti (imperfective)[1][2][3]

  1. to be seized, held

InflectionEdit

Imperfective, thematic
3rd singular *kapyéti
3rd plural *kapyónti
Active voice Present indicative Past indicative Imperative Subjunctive Optative
1st singular *kapyóh₂ *kapyóm *kapyṓh₂ *kapyóyh₁m̥
2nd singular *kapyési *kapyés *kapyé *kapyḗsi *kapyóys
3rd singular *kapyéti *kapyét *kapyétu *kapyḗti *kapyóyt
1st dual *kapyówos *kapyówe *kapyṓwos *kapyóywe
2nd dual *kapyétes *kapyétom *kapyétom *kapyḗtes *kapyóytom
3rd dual *kapyétes *kapyétām *kapyétām *kapyḗtes *kapyóytām
1st plural *kapyómos *kapyóme *kapyṓmos *kapyóyme
2nd plural *kapyéte *kapyéte *kapyéte *kapyḗte *kapyóyte
3rd plural *kapyónti *kapyónt *kapyóntu *kapyṓnti *kapyóyh₁n̥t
Participle *kapyónts
Middle voice Present indicative Past indicative Imperative Subjunctive Optative
1st singular *kapyóh₂er *kapyóh₂e *kapyṓh₂er *kapyóyh₂e
2nd singular *kapyéth₂er *kapyéth₂e *kapyéso *kapyḗth₂er *kapyóyth₂e
3rd singular *kapyétor *kapyéto *? *kapyḗtor *kapyóyto, *kapyóyh₁o
1st dual *kapyówosdʰh₂ *kapyówedʰh₂ *kapyṓwosdʰh₂ *kapyóywedʰh₂
2nd dual *? *? *? *? *?
3rd dual *? *? *? *? *?
1st plural *kapyómosdʰh₂ *kapyómedʰh₂ *kapyṓmosdʰh₂ *kapyóymedʰh₂
2nd plural *kapyédʰh₂we *kapyédʰh₂we *kapyédʰh₂we *kapyḗdʰh₂we *kapyóydʰh₂we
3rd plural *kapyóror, *kapyóntor *kapyóro, *kapyónto *? *kapyṓror, *kapyṓntor *kapyóyro, *kapyóyh₁n̥to
Participle *kapyómnos

Alternative reconstructionsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Albanian:
    • Albanian: kap (to grab, catch, seize)[6][7]
  • Balto-Slavic: [Term?]
  • Germanic: *habjaną (to lift) (see there for further descendants)
  • Hellenic: *kapťō
    • Ancient Greek: κάπτω (káptō, to gulp down)
  • Italic: *kapiō
    • Latin: capiō (to capture, seize, take) (see there for further descendants)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959), “kap-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume II, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 527-529
  2. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006), “*kap-”, in The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 270
  3. ^ Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  4. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*keh₂p-¹”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 344–345
  5. ^ Dunkel, George E. (2014) Lexikon der indogermanischen Partikeln und Pronominalstämme [Lexicon of Indo-European Particles and Pronominal Stems] (Indogermanische Bibliothek. 2. Reihe: Wörterbücher) (in German), Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter GmbH Heidelberg, →ISBN, page 79
  6. ^ Orel, Vladimir (1998), “kap”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Cologne: Brill, page 169
  7. ^ Demiraj, Bardhyl (1997), “kap”, in Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz [Albanian Etymologies: Investigations into the Albanian Inherited Lexicon] (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 7) (in German), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi