This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Compare Tocharian A/B (not, no), not a prohibitive particle. According to Martirosyan, if the word originally meant ‘not’ and later obtained the function of the prohibitive, we are dealing with an Armeno-Greek-Albanian-Indo-Iranian grammatical isogloss.



  1. prohibitive particle

See alsoEdit


  • Albanian: *mē
    • Albanian: mo
  • Albanian: *mē tše
  • Armenian:
    • Old Armenian: մի (mi)
    • Urartian: 𒈪𒉌 (/mī, mi, me(i)/, usually: and; as a prohibitive: no, not)
  • Hellenic: *mḗ
    • Ancient Greek: μή (mḗ)
  • Indo-Iranian: *maH (see there for further descendants)
  • Messapic: [Term?] (ma, not)


  • Martirosyan, Hrach (2010) Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 468f
  • Martirosyan, Hrach (2013) , “The place of Armenian in the Indo-European language family: the relationship with Greek and Indo-Iranian”, in Journal of Language Relationship[1], issue 10, § 3.4, page 91
  • Abajev, V. I. (1973) , “ma”, in Istoriko-etimologičeskij slovarʹ osetinskovo jazyka [Historical-Etymological Dictionary of the Ossetian Language] (in Russian), volume II, Moscow, Leningrad: USSR Academy of Sciences, page 60f