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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.





  1. to ache
  2. to fester
  3. wound; injury

Derived termsEdit

  • *swer- (root present)
  • *swer-wos
  • *swer-tó- or *swer-dʰo-
    • Germanic: (unclear, requiring an additional original sense 'to cut') *swerdą (sword)
  • Unsorted formations:



  1. to resound; ringing, whistling
  2. to speak loudly
  3. to swear

Derived termsEdit

  • *swér- (root present)
  • *swor-ye- (o-grade ye-present)
  • *swor-eh₂
    • Germanic: *swarō (statement, oath, vow)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Balto-Slavic:
    • Italic:
      • Latin: (possibly) surdus (deaf)
      • Latin: (perhaps) susurrus (whisper, rustle)
      • Oscan: (possibly) [Term?] (sverruneí, speaker?, dative singular)


  1. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  2. ^ Philippa, Marlies; Debrabandere, Frans; Quak, Arend; Schoonheim, Tanneke; van der Sijs, Nicoline (2003–2009), “zweren”, in Etymologisch woordenboek van het Nederlands (in Dutch), Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill