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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.





  1. to turn, spin

Derived termsEdit


  1. 1.0 1.1 Adams, Douglas Q. (1999), “²tärk”, in A dictionary of Tocharian B (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 294-295
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “torqueō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 624
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008), “tar(k)u-zi”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 842-844
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*þwerha-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 556
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*terkʷ-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, page 635
  6. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ἄτρακτος”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 164