This Proto-Mongolic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Nugteren derives earlier *cï by comparison with other second-person pronouns, but all descendants clearly derive from *ci and some authorities even reject *ï as a separate phoneme.

Internal reconstruction also allows reconstructing earlier *tï/*ti.


Somewhat similar to Proto-Turkic *sen and Proto-Tungusic *si. Compare Turkish sen, Evenki си (si).

Whether this similarity is due to inheritance, borrowing or coincidence is a highly contentious question among specialists in these languages which is of crucial significance for the Altaic debate.



  1. you (personal pronoun)


  • Middle Mongolian:
    Arabic: جي(či) (Muqaddimat)
    Phags-Pa: ꡅꡞ
    Uighur: ᠴᠢ (či)
  • Mongolian:
    • Classical: ᠴᠢ (či)
    • Khalkha Mongolian: чи (či)
    • Ordos: /t͡ʃʰi/
  • Buryat: ши (ši)
  • Khamnigan Mongol: či
  • Kalmyk: чи (çi)
  • Daur: shii
  • East Yugur: ci
  • Monguor:
    • Mangghuer: qi
    • Mongghul: qi
  • Bonan: ci
  • Kangjia: ci
  • Dongxiang: chi
  • Mogholi: ci

Further readingEdit

  • Nugteren, Hans (2011) Mongolic phonology and the Qinghai-Gansu languages (dissertation)‎[1], Utrecht: LOT, page 300-301
  • Janhunen, Juha (2013) Personal pronouns in Core Altaic. In Shared Grammaticalization With Special Focus on the Transeurasian Languages [Studies in Language Companion Series 132], Martine Robbeets & Hubert Cuyckens (eds)
  • Schütz, Edmond (1974) Remarks On Altaic Personal Pronouns. In Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Vol. 28, No. 1