English edit

 
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Etymology edit

Borrowed from Mandarin ().

Noun edit

ci (uncountable)

  1. One of the Classical Chinese poetry forms

Anagrams edit

Aka (Central Africa) edit

Noun edit

ci

  1. water

Further reading edit

  • Marvin Lionel Bender, Topics in Nilo-Saharan linguistics (1989) (cí, cì)
  • [1] (ɕi)

Balinese edit

Romanization edit

ci

  1. Romanization of ᬘᬶ

Bambara edit

Etymology 1 edit

Noun edit

  1. thatch, especially of the species Diheteropogon grandiflorus

Etymology 2 edit

Noun edit

  1. commission, errand
  2. message, order
  3. mission, task, assignment
    ò cí bɛ́ í kàn
    it is your duty
  4. work, labor (especially agricultural)
    cí kɛ́
    to work in the fields
  5. usefulness, utility
    cí tɛ́ nìn ná
    that's useless

Verb edit

  1. to send, charge with a mission
    sɛ́bɛn cí mɔ̀gɔ mà
    to send a letter to someone

Etymology 3 edit

Verb edit

  1. to hit
    fíyɛn bɛ́ cì
    the wind is blowing
    fàli cì
    to hit an donkey
  2. to break
    à y'á kùn cì
    He knocked him unconscious
  3. to destroy
  4. to split, divide, cut
    dɔ́gɔ cì
    to split wood
  5. to burst, explode with a loud noise
    màrifa cì
    to fire off a round (with a gun)
  6. to trace, tattoo
    bála cì
    to plot an area of a field to be hoed
    tùgu cì
    to vaccinate in the arm

Noun edit

  1. line, stroke
  2. tattoo

Corsican edit

Etymology edit

Ultimately from either Latin hīc (here) or hinc (from here). Akin to Italian ci; see there for more. Compare Sicilian cci.

Adverb edit

ci

  1. there

Pronoun edit

ci

  1. us (both direct and indirect object)

See also edit

References edit

Dalmatian edit

Etymology edit

From Latin quem. Compare Portuguese quem, Romanian cine, Spanish quien, Romansch che, Sardinian chíne.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

ci

  1. who

Dhimal edit

Noun edit

ci

  1. water

Further reading edit

  • John T. King, A Grammar of Dhimal

Esperanto edit

Etymology edit

From Italian or French tu, Russian ты (ty), etc., plus the i of personal pronouns.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [t͡si]
  • Audio:
    (file)
  • Hyphenation: ci

Pronoun edit

ci (accusative cin, possessive cia)

  1. (rare, proscribed) thou, you (second-person informal singular pronoun)
    • 1905, Ludoviko Lazaro Zamenhof, Fundamento de Esperanto:
      Mi legas. — Ci skribas (anstataŭ “ci” oni uzas ordinare “vi”).
      I read. — Thou writest (instead of “ci” one ordinarily uses “vi”.)
    • 1899, Felikso Zamenhof, (Please provide the book title or journal name):
      Ekamis la konato / Kaj reciproke ŝi; / Post paso de monato / Ŝanĝiĝis »Vi« per »ci«.
      Her acquaintance fell in love / and reciprocally she; / after the passage of a month / "You" changed into "thee".
    • 1907, Henri Vallienne, Kastelo de Prelongo, ch. 6:
      Cia sintenado estos vere fiera, li moke murmuretis en ŝian orelon, kiam ci estos vekinta la tutan loĝantaron.
      Thine attitude shall be truly proud, he mockingly whispered into her ear, when thou shalt have awakened the whole population.

Usage notes edit

Some people believe that this word was used in the past and then became archaic, but this is not true. Actually, this word has never been in common usage; Zamenhof advised against using 'ci' as early as the Dua Libro de l' Lingvo Internacia, published in 1888. Many Esperantists don't even understand it. Some authors have used 'ci' to portray archaic language, for translations, and for stylistic effects. This usage is criticized by other writers.

  • Ludwig L. Zamenhof, Dua Libro de l' Lingvo Internacia; Ludwig L. Zamenhof, Lingvaj Respondoj; Bertilo Wennergren, Plena Manlibro de Esperanta Gramatiko (PMEG); Bernard Golden, La Gazeto #11, June 15, 1987; Zlatko Tisjlar, Frekvencmorfemaro de Parolata Esperanto.

French edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Late Latin ecce hīc.

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

ci

  1. (in compounds, else archaic) Alternative form of ici (here)
  2. (after a noun) see -ci

Derived terms edit

References edit

Hausa edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Chadic, ultimately from Proto-Afroasiatic *taʔ- (to eat, especially something soft, to close lips, especially loosely). Compare Akkadian 𒋫𒀪𒌑 (ta-ʔu-u2 /⁠ta'u⁠/, to eat), Mehri tewō (eat), Arabicتَأْتَأَ(taʔtaʔa, to stammer, to stutter, to reduplicate sounds, to mumble or move lips), and with varying Berber forms Tamahaq ⵜⵜ (tǝtt), Tarifit ⵜⵜ (tǝtt), Central Atlas Tamazight ⵜⵛ (tc), and Kabyle teṭṭ (pharyngeal-coloring found as well in the Arabic variant ⁧تَعْتَعَ(taʕtaʕa), and in that sense possible further connections to ⁧طَعِمَ(ṭaʕima, to taste) and ⁧عَضَّ(ʕaḍḍa, to bite)).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /t͡ʃí/
    • (Standard Kano Hausa) IPA(key): [t͡ʃɪ́]

Verb edit

ci (grade Ø)

  1. to eat, to eat soft things

Ido edit

Pronunciation edit

Determiner edit

ci

  1. Alternative form of ici (these)

Pronoun edit

ci

  1. Alternative form of ici (these)

Indonesian edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ˈt͡ʃi]
  • Hyphenation: ci

Etymology 1 edit

From Amoy (chîⁿ, “mace”).

Noun edit

ci (first-person possessive ciku, second-person possessive cimu, third-person possessive cinya)

  1. (obsolete) weight unit: 1/10 tahil (for opium).

Etymology 2 edit

From Sundanese ᮎᮤ (ci), ultimately from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *wahiʀ.

Noun edit

ci (first-person possessive ciku, second-person possessive cimu, third-person possessive cinya)

  1. river (large stream which drains a landmass)
Synonyms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Noun edit

ci (first-person possessive ciku, second-person possessive cimu, third-person possessive cinya)

  1. alternative form of encik.
  2. alternative form of taci (elder sister).

Further reading edit

Interlingua edit

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

ci

  1. here (at this place)

Italian edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Latin (the name of the letter C).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): (most common outside of Tuscany) /ˈt͡ʃi/*
  • Rhymes: -i
  • Hyphenation:

Noun edit

ci f (invariable)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter C.; cee
See also edit

Further reading edit

  • ci2 in Treccani.it – Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana

Etymology 2 edit

Uncertain. Rohlfs[1] and Von Wartburg[2] favoured/favored Late Latin ecce hīc. Maiden[3] casts doubt on this etymology, pointing out that Italian ci is an unstressed 'weak' form, while Latin hic otherwise survives in Italian only in stressed forms (reinforced by Latin ecce or eccum) such as ciò, qua, and qui. (It should also be noted that all of the latter trigger syntactic doubling in a following word, thanks to their original final /k/, while ci does not.)[4] Maiden proposes instead an origin in Latin hince, variant of hinc (hence, from here), pointing out that in parts of southern Italy there exists a 1PL pronoun 'nci (cf. also 'nce). Treccani,[5] on the other hand, proposes an origin in Latin hīce, a variant of hīc (here). In any case, the Italian term is certainly cognate with Neapolitan ce, Sicilian cci and Sassarese zi, all three of which share similar adverbial senses, with the latter two also having pronominal senses.

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /t͡ʃi/, (Sicily, Calabria) */t͡ʃi/
  • Hyphenation: ci

Pronoun edit

ci

  1. us
    Loro ci conosconoThey know us
  2. (reflexive) ourselves; each other
    Ci arrabbiamoWe (ourselves) get angry
    Ci amiamoWe love each other
  3. to us
    Lui ci ha detto questoHe said this to us
  4. replaces the indefinite personal pronoun si (one) before reflexive si (oneself); one
    Ci si lava.One washes oneself.
    Ci si annoia quando non c'è niente da fare.
    One gets bored when there is nothing to do.
  5. it, to it
    Non ci credo.I do not believe it.
Usage notes edit
  • Becomes ce when followed by a third person direct object clitic (lo, la, li, le, or ne).
See also edit

Adverb edit

ci

  1. to there, here, there
    Synonym: vi (formal)
    Ci sono andatoI have been there
    Ci siamoWe're here
    Ci sono molte coseThere are many things
    C'è un problemaThere is a problem
  2. forms part of many verbs:
    volercito require/take
    abituarcito get used to it
    riuscircito be able to do it
    entrarcito do with something
    contarcito count on it
    pensarcito think about it
    starcito agree / to be up for something
    farcelato manage to do something
    credercito believe it
See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Rohlfs, Gerhard. 1969. Grammatica storica della lingua italiana e dei suoi dialetti, vol. 3: Sintassi e formazione delle parole. Torino: Einaudi. §899.
  2. ^ Walther von Wartburg (1928–2002), “hīc”, in Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), volume 4: G H I, page 425
  3. ^ Maiden, Martin. 1995. A linguistic history of Italian. London: Longman. §9.1.1.
  4. ^ ci in Luciano Canepari, Dizionario di Pronuncia Italiana (DiPI)
  5. ^ ci1 in Treccani.it – Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana

Etymology 3 edit

Alternative forms edit

Noun edit

ci m (uncountable)

  1. the Twi language family

Further reading edit

  • ci1 in Treccani.it – Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana
  • ci2 in Treccani.it – Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana
  • ci3 in Treccani.it – Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana

Kangjia edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Mongolic *ci, compare Mongolian чи (či), Dongxiang chi.

Pronoun edit

ci

  1. you

Kanuri edit

Noun edit

ci

  1. mouth

Latin edit

Verb edit

  1. second-person singular present active imperative of ciō

Malay edit

 
ci

Etymology edit

From Sundanese ᮎᮤ (ci).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ci (Jawi spellingچي⁩, plural ci-ci, informal 1st possessive ciku, 2nd possessive cimu, 3rd possessive cinya)

  1. river (large stream which drains a landmass)

Synonyms edit

Further reading edit

Mandarin edit

Romanization edit

ci

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .
  3. Nonstandard spelling of .
  4. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes edit

  • Transcriptions of Mandarin into the Latin script often do not distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without indication of tone.

Noone edit

Verb edit

ci

  1. strike

Synonyms edit

References edit

Nupe edit

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

ci

  1. Used to order actions temporally: then; and
    Musa à bá nakàn yínna, Gàná ci à gí eci yínnaMusa will cut meat today, and Gana will eat yam today

Usage notes edit

  • ci is solely used to join verbs/sentences and not nouns, for which is used. Additionally, when ci is used, the subject of each verb must be specified.

See also edit

Old French edit

Etymology edit

From Late Latin ecce hīc.

Adverb edit

ci

  1. here (in this place)

Descendants edit

  • French: ici, ci

Old Irish edit

Pronoun edit

ci

  1. Alternative form of cía

Conjunction edit

ci

  1. Alternative form of cía

Polish edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /t͡ɕi/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -i
  • Syllabification: ci

Etymology 1 edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *ti.

Pronoun edit

ci

  1. short dative singular of ty.

Etymology 3 edit

Pronoun edit

ci m

  1. virile nominative plural of ten

Romanian edit

Etymology edit

From ce.

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

ci

  1. (adversative) but; so that; on the contrary, opposite
    Nici eu, ci el.Not I, but he.

See also edit

Sicilian edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Akin to Italian ci; see there for more.

Adverb edit

ci

  1. here, there

Etymology 2 edit

Pronoun edit

ci

  1. dative of iddu (he); to him
  2. dative of idda (she); to her
  3. dative of iddi (they); to them
Usage notes edit
  • Unlike in Italian, the Sicilian pronoun ci is not used for the first-person plural ('us'). The Sicilian equivalent is ni.
Inflection edit
3rd person m f pl
nominative iddu idda iddi
prepositional iddu idda iddi
accusative lu la li
dative ci ci ci
reflexive si si si

Tarantino edit

Pronoun edit

ci (relative)

  1. who

Tedim Chin edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Kuki-Chin *tsii, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-tsji.

Noun edit

ci

  1. salt

References edit

  • Zomi Ordbog based on the work of D.L. Haokip

Venetian edit

Etymology edit

From Latin quis (compare Italian chi).

Pronoun edit

ci (interrogative)

  1. who?

Usage notes edit

  • Redoubled for reinforcement.
    Ci èlo ci?
    Who on earth is he?

Walloon edit

Etymology edit

From Old French cist, from Latin ecce istum (< iste).

Pronunciation edit

Determiner edit

ci (after an open syllabe : ç', feminine : cisse, masculine form before vowel : cist, feminine form before vowel : ciste, plural : ces)

  1. this
    Ci rotch
    This rock
    C' est ç' rotch-ci
    It's this rock
    Cist ome
    This man
    Cisse gayole
    This box
    Ciste afwaire
    This affair
    Ces måjhons
    These houses

Pronoun edit

ci (before a vowel : c', alternative form : çou)

  1. it, this
    Ci m' fwait må
    It hurts me
    C' est on ome
    It a man

Welsh edit

 
ci

Etymology edit

From Proto-Brythonic *ki, from Proto-Celtic *kū, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱwṓ.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ci m (plural cŵn)

  1. dog

Derived terms edit

Mutation edit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
ci gi nghi chi
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

White Hmong edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

ci

  1. to cook, to roast, to toast
  2. to glow, to shine

Zhuang edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Chinese (MC tsyhae).

Noun edit

ci (1957–1982 spelling ci)

  1. vehicle

Classifier edit

ci (1957–1982 spelling ci)

  1. carload of; cartload of; truckload of

Verb edit

ci (1957–1982 spelling ci)

  1. to sew with a sewing machine
  2. to machine on a lathe

Etymology 2 edit

From Chinese (MC tsyhwe).

Verb edit

ci (Sawndip form 𫩝, 1957–1982 spelling ci)

  1. (intransitive, of wind) to blow
    Synonyms: (dialectal) baed, (dialectal) daet, (dialectal) boq, (dialectal) coi
  2. (transitive) to blow
    Synonym: (dialectal) baed
  3. (transitive) to play (a wind instrument)
  4. (transitive) to pump (a bellows)
    Synonyms: (dialectal) daz, (dialectal) boz

Etymology 3 edit

From Chinese (MC tshwoj).

Verb edit

ci (1957–1982 spelling ci)

  1. to urge
    Synonyms: (dialectal) cui, (dialectal) dok

Etymology 4 edit

From Chinese (MC tsye).

Classifier edit

ci (1957–1982 spelling ci)

  1. Used for stick-like objects.